One Thousand Years of Jarman Family History
1000 A.D. – 2000 A.D.
The First Half-Millennium
Generations 0 to 19
The phrase “from humble beginnings” -- more often used to describe great men and women than family research – is, surely, the only appropriate way to begin to explain -- and, I hope, to justify -- this fifteen-year-long “retirement project”. It began, really, with a long-forgotten box of old photographs, salvaged, in 1979, from the bottom of a wardrobe in the Marrickville home unit of my just-deceased grandmother, Hanora (Norah) Ellen Trathen. The box was promptly consigned to the bottom of another wardrobe – this time in Blaxland -- where it was just as promptly forgotten, and where it remained undisturbed until around 1991, when a “new broom” – in the form of its newest occupant, my wife, Helen – swept through no. 56, Grahame Street, and brought the photographs into the light of day for the first time in more than thirty years.
A war refugee from Vietnam, Helen had fled her home country under circumstances which precluded the preservation of family heirlooms; to her, that box of photographs and letters, many nearly a century old, was a treasure chest almost beyond imagining. Determined to preserve, restore, and catalogue everything, Helen immediately began questioning me about the identities of the subjects; I, in turn, was dismayed at the realisation of how little I knew about past members of my own family, and all through my own fault. Every one of the photographs had, at some time in the past, been shown to me, and I recall that my grandmother had a story to tell for every one. I also recall that I was, during her lifetime, supremely uninterested in both her photographs and the stories attached to them, so that, by 1992, I could scarcely put a name to a face; and there was, now, no one to whom I could turn for assistance.
So the photographs and letters were duly mounted in albums – with, of necessity, most of the names left blank -- and I began to encounter other people who had much the same tale to tell regarding their own family history: when the information was there for the picking, they were too young, too “contemporary”, to absorb any of it, and now that their new-found maturity – which probably means their awareness of their mortality – had made them aware of, and acutely interested in, family members who had already departed, they found that the information they now coveted had departed also, never to be reclaimed. I also, around this time, found myself with two new children – making a total of five – and I made up my mind that, whether they wanted it or not, this new generation would have, after my passing, at least some kind of permanent record of the generations that had preceded them.
Of course, there wasn’t so much as a thought then that this permanent record would go back more than three or four generations. At that time I would have been quite happy just to record, for posterity, the fact that my grand-uncle had befriended Henry Lawson, and that my grandmother would routinely take me to the annual Anzac march in the streets of Sydney and point proudly to the banners that she had, as a young woman, personally embroidered.
But, like many projects that begin small, this one quickly took on a life of its own, and gradually became an obsession (a term which I would soon hear, again and again, whenever family research came up in discussion; it seems that every other family has its own resident fanatic, the person who spends countless hours deciphering inscriptions on old tombstones and rousing pastors of country churches for an inspection of dusty parish records – to both of which charges I plead guilty); every so often I would almost lose heart and give the whole project away, but then, out of nowhere, would come an unexpected discovery that would fire the enthusiasm all over again and propel me toward the next revelation.
For me, the very first of these was the fact that my great-great grandparents, William Patterson and Jane Stewart (Generation 5) arrived in Sydney (at Campbell’s Wharf) in 1849 on, of all dates, May 25; and, moreover, that their baby, William Jr, died just a few hours later, before they even had a chance to set foot on Australian soil. That intensely ‘personalised’ discovery was enough to send me down to Campbell’s Wharf (which I had previously passed a thousand times without so much as a glance) for a fresh look.
Then there was the revelation -- after a visit to St Peter’s Church for what started out as a casual inspection of their records and from there, far less-casually, to the Public Library for a trawl through the Sydney Morning Heralds of 1849 -- of the ‘Lack murders’ at Campbelltown. This discovery, exciting in itself, led to one of the high points of the whole research project: the day in the State Archives in Globe Street, Sydney, when the archivist presented me with a pair of gloves, an old box, and strict instructions on how to handle original documents and relics; and there, for my perusal, were police and witness statements, hand-drawn floor plans, and court transcripts. I expect that this was the moment my interest became a true obsession; without any help from H.G. Wells, I had discovered my own time machine, and from that day on, there was no stopping me.
Within a few months, I had discovered that my great-great-great grandfather, Robert Lack, had been a contractor to Lachlan Macquarie, and that a letter regarding his duties, bearing the governor’s initials, was still held in the Archives of NSW; and that his wife, Elizabeth Lack (as Elizabeth Richardson, one of the ‘Campbelltown victims’) was the daughter of two first-fleeters (this discovery, of course, opened up for my inspection a formidable body of data about my two convict antecedents; research on First-Fleeters abounds, both in the Family History section of local libraries, and on the internet. All at once, my humble research had extended beyond Australian shores, all the way to Fishmonger’s Alley, St Saviour, and the Court of Assizes in Kingston-Upon-Thames, Southwark, London).
Even if I had never discovered the Pottingers – and, for many years, I had not identified the name, as the only original document to which I had access had misspelled the name as ‘Pettinger’ -- the family research project would have yielded seven generations’ worth of information and five years’ worth of enthralling discoveries, far more than I had even dreamed of when it was begun. But, undoubtedly, it would have run down of its own accord soon afterwards, for lack of pre-18th century information on what were essentially peasant-farmer families (who, generally, left few traces), to fuel it. Entries in my ‘pre-Pottinger’ research became progressively leaner with each generation, until, at one stage, I was down to as little as three or four, alongside a host of ‘unknowns’.
Annie Georgina Keating Pottinger (my great-grandmother), however, was the gateway to another thirty generations, at least. The Pottingers were well-documented, in Australia, India, Hong Kong, South Africa, Afghanistan, and in the United Kingdom. There were monuments, photographs, newspaper articles, and even whole books: a monument to Annie’s uncle, Frederick William Pottinger, had been erected – and long overlooked by anyone in our family – less than a kilometre from our home; its eventual discovery, and the wealth of half-remembered Australian history that surfaced as a result of it, constituted another of those defining moments which reinforced the obsession which this project had produced.
It was the Pottinger research that, eventually, caused me to undertake a major re-organisation of the information I had collected; which, in turn, determined the format of the completed work (not just a genealogical record -- a traditional ‘family tree’-- but a genealogical encyclopedia, which, in spite of its of-necessity complexity, had first and foremost to be ‘readable’, which most genealogies I had encountered most-certainly were not), and which helped me, eventually, to define realistic time limits for a research that could, at least in theory, have stretched right back through the Norse Chronicles and beyond: a Jarman Millennium, going backwards from the beginning of the third Millennium to the end of the first.
The title – decided on during the 2000 ‘new Millennium’ euphoria – came after I had realised the breadth and depth of information I now had at my disposal, but before I had fully appreciated the enormity of the task such a title implied. A millennium equals around thirty-five generations; working backwards, each generation contains twice the number of entries as the one preceding it. Even leaving out Helen’s family entirely (which would have left just two remaining entries for Generation 2), the number of entries in thirty-five generations would -- before the ‘unknowns’ (which I was, of course, anxious to minimize) whittled it down to manageable size -- have amounted to 2, plus 2 to the power of 2, plus 2 to the power of 3, plus…. all the way up to 2 to the power of 34: a number far in excess of the total number of people in the early second-millennium world, and, of course, logically impossible, as well as far beyond my power to tabulate.
The obvious solution to the absurdity of the figure is, simply, that, if one goes back in time far enough, the same name will appear as an ancestor in two, three, or even more ‘lines’ (King Robert II Stewart of Scotland, who was reputed to have had up to twenty-five children, is the converging point of at least nine separate genealogical lines, and, as a result, is recorded in Generations 21, 22, and 23. Similarly, his granddaughter, Mary Stewart – sister of King James I of Scotland – was married at least four times, and every one of these marriages – to George Douglas, to James Kennedy, to Sir William Graham, and to William Edmonstone – began a new genealogical line, of varying lengths, for the family).
Every time two previously-separate lines merged – and it happened, naturally, with increasing frequency as the time frame of the research lengthened – I confess to a feeling of relief: hundreds of prospective entries (for more-distant generations) made redundant in a single stroke! What rather surprised me was how few generational ‘steps’ one needed to retrace before the occurrence of a ‘merge’: as early as Generation 12, the twice-married Thomas Curwen occurs as father of Thomas Curwen in one line and of Agnes Curwen in another. So those two lines, from the elder Thomas backwards in time, can be treated as one, simplifying the compilation (fewer entries) but, at the same time, making the organisation of the information extremely tricky: generations do not, unfortunately, ‘move’ in equal, synchronised steps; a twelfth ancestor in one line may well be a different-numbered ancestor in another. Thomas Curwen, a father in Generation 12, is the same man who is a father in Generation 16; how can this be tabulated without the necessity of hordes of multiple entries as one continues backwards to his ancestors, while still keeping the format reasonably clear and, as already mentioned, readable?
Since the format chosen for this project was markedly different from any I had seen in any other published family tree, I had no precedent to guide me here, and I make no claim that the eventual solution decided upon would ever rate as ‘world’s best practice’: quite simply, the most-recent occurrence of a name was treated as the ‘essential’ occurrence, and the one from which earlier generations were charted. More-distant occurrences were simply listed with a reference back to the original (thus, the afore-mentioned Robert II Stewart of Scotland, occurring in three separate generations, is charted from the ‘most-recent’ occurrence, which is, in this case, Generation 21).
While this solution was effective in allowing the fewest possible number of discrete entries, it could do nothing to “align” the members of the separate lines in order that, for instance, siblings would occur – as, logically, they ought to -- in the same generation; in the case of Sir Henry Curwen, his appearance in Generation 16 as the patriarch of one genealogical line means that a child on that line is recorded in Generation 15, three generations earlier than Sir Henry’s own subsequent ‘appearance’ as patriarch of another line in Generation 12. Sir Henry’s name, therefore, occurs in the same generation as his own great-great-granddaughter (Mary Lowther) from his ‘other’ family line, and his two wives (one for each line) are separated by four generational ‘steps’. With the compilation of each earlier generation, occurrences of this particular anomaly become more frequent, and the data more complex. This, however, is no more, nor less, than historical reality; suddenly, the seemingly-impossible Mathematics associated with twenty or thirty generations becomes understandable, and reasonable.
Interpretation of the data is, therefore, not quite as easy as it might first appear, or as I would have liked; some cross-referencing and jumping between generations is required for the chronology to make any sense. In return for such effort, however, the reader will find a virtual treasure-trove of history at its most enthralling and at its most personal: there is great achievement and great disgrace; there are kidnappings, discoveries, assassinations, triumphs, failures, political and romantic intrigues, and even the odd miracle or two. There are tales of monarchs, statesmen, explorers, inventors, scientists, warriors, executioners, holy men, law makers, and law breakers. And every one is a direct antecedent of the present Jarman family.
The question will, of course, be asked: is any of this really true? Genealogy is, admittedly, a somewhat-discredited science, more akin to myth than to Mathematics. Researching the data, I soon despaired at how frequently, in previous studies, I observed conclusions hastily accepted on the most tenuous of evidence, in defiance of all logic, and despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary (the saga of Sarah Eggleton and Sarah Eglinton, in Generation 6, became an amusing and quite convoluted sidetrack which eventually found its way to the meeting rooms of the Society of Australian Geneaologists and the First Fleeters Association). It is hard to take genealogical research seriously when researchers, for want of more accurate information, blithely record children born a half-century after the death of both parents, or mothers bearing children at age seven and continuing to bear at age seventy. There is, regrettably, a lot of misinformation in the public domain, most of it on the internet, but more than a little in the ‘respected’ sources. I made up my mind that whenever I was unable to resolve the problems of logic so often “swept under the carpet” by my sources, I would record ‘Unknown’ for that particular entry, and the particular line would stop at that point. There are, I fear, a great many ‘unknowns’ in this project.
The above statement may be read as a claim to some degree of prudence in the compilation of this project, but not, by any means, to infallibility. To the question, “Is any of this really true?” I can confidently answer, “Most definitely; nearly all of it”. To the more-important question, “Is all of this really true?”, I would have to answer, certainly not. It is, however, as accurate as a decade-and-a-half of enthusiastic (if inexpert) research can make it. But even as it is being compiled, new research is uncovering hitherto-unknown facts which will, of course, invalidate some of the entries, even those currently accepted in all current research. In two respects, this project is a work in progress: the “unknowns” cry out for a future genealogist in the family to continue the research, using sources not yet examined and discoveries not yet made. The inaccuracies that have undoubtedly crept in – perhaps even some of the absurdities mentioned above, which have managed to slip through unnoticed – demand to be corrected in the light of future, more-accurate research using fresh sources and newly-discovered information: a task, once again, for a future family researcher.
This is, perhaps, the greatest gift I can bestow on this ‘Jarman genealogist-of-the-future’, since – as I have, I hope, made abundantly clear in this introduction – the voyage of discovery on which this project has led me is an endlessly enthralling, immensely fulfilling one: it has taken me places I would not otherwise have visited (the garden of the Council Chambers in Campbelltown, the Police/Bushrangers’ Dinner at Rooty Hill RSL Club, the field at Bannockburn, Pottinger’s Entry in Belfast, the cemetery at Steeple Morden in Cambridgeshire), seen things I would not otherwise have seen (the Rosetta Stone in the British Museum; the memorial to Major Eldred Pottinger in St Thomas’s Cathedral, Mumbai; the tribute -- with photographs and artefacts – to Frederick William Pottinger at McDonald’s, Blaxland), and ‘met’ people I would otherwise never have known (the names of at least some of whom are listed in Acknowledgements). This is a torch that I am proud to pass to present and future family members: there are many more places to visit, things to see, people to learn from.
On its own, this sense of fulfilment would, I feel, have been sufficient justification for me to undertake this project, and to persevere with it for so many years. However, there is, I have discovered, a quite separate, but equally-compelling, reward in compiling a work such as this, one which all present and future members of the Jarman family line ought to be alerted to: one becomes aware, as never before, of one’s membership in something larger, and of greater significance, than one’s immediate family and one’s immediate society. A genealogical line is a continuum stretching a thousand years into the past and ten times as far into the future, and each person in the line represents no more than a moment (in this work, a page, or a paragraph, or even a sentence) in that continuum. Yet every person in the record made, within his ‘moment’, a series of decisions, from well-considered to wildly imprudent, which, intentionally or otherwise, inexorably shaped, for better or worse, the lives of every member of the line who came after, right down to the present day. The Jarman line of the future turned, again and again, on choices made in the past. As I, perhaps sententiously (but, I would hope, not insensitively), assessed someone’s life and significance to his/her descendants in a fifty-word summary, I came to realise that this, indeed, is the destiny of every one of us: to make decisions upon which the family line must turn, and to have our contribution, whether for good or for ill, reduced to a one-paragraph summary by a future member of the line who knows us only through the impact of our actions on his current situation.
Just what is to be written in this paragraph of the future must, as Hamlet said, ‘give us pause’; fortunately, it is within our power to ‘write’ it now, by life choices we make in the present.
Alan Leslie Jarman
While the compilation of the information presented in The Jarman Millennium involved a certain amount of original research -- including the acquisition of Birth, Death, and Marriage certificates in both Australia and the United Kingdom; the examination and copying of Church records, cemetery inscriptions, and archival newspaper items in both these countries; and the recording of anecdotal evidence from family members who had walked many of the paths before I began -- by far the major portion of the data presented here is assembled from the standard genealogical works (such as Burke’s Peerage and Complete Peerage), and, of course, the internet, the vast genealogical resources of which were first drawn to my attention by my friend and colleague, Brian Edwards (a minute-long converation with Brian initiated a decade-and-a-half-long obsession). The number of internet sites ‘plundered’ for this compilation (but, I hope, acknowledged, as far as is possible, in the text) is so great that it would be impossible to list all (however, of the hundreds of internet publishers who have freely offered the fruits of their genealogical research to the casual browser, John P Ravilious – my respect and admiration for whom is unbounded – Rosie Bevan, and Douglas Richardson are names that seemed to crop up again and again, in the most-unexpected places, so perhaps these should be singled out at this time for special mention); however, for the future Jarman researcher who seeks to check, correct, and expand on what I have written here, a few internet websites which are, virtually, mandatory ‘stopping places’ are listed below, in no particular order:
In addition, the following ‘amateur’ (in the true sense of the word) family historians -- many of whom I have not, even now, managed to meet -- all freely and unhesitatingly shared the fruits of their own research, with advice, letters, documents, sources, and, in some cases, meetings and ‘expeditions’. I probably would never have even begun this research without the encouragement, and practical assistance, of Helen Paternoster (nee Eggleton), Linda Eggleton, Edgar Penzig, Juliette Hendry, Joseph Platt, Paul Pottinger, Paul Briggs, Morris Pottinger (the ‘Old Man of Hoy’), Helen Hanson, Patricia Iseke, Hugh Casement, Peter J Moore, Lynn Epp, Mary Farek, Alan Shaw, Pat Walters, and – by no means least -- sisters Frances Hoch and Celia Sheppard (nee Jarman), who were both working on their family histories (which overlapped with mine in several places) at the same time as I, but – being a half-world away -- using different resources; having the benefits of their research, which was unhesitatingly shared (I received one of the first copies of Celia’s Our Family History, published April, 2012, which was so well-researched and expertly-compiled that my first impulse was to consign my own efforts, trivial by comparison, into the ‘cylindrical filing cabinet’; instead, I consoled myself by plagiarising it!) was a privilege beyond measure; and it made my task considerably easier!
Without doubt, all of these ‘fellow-sleuths’ – and there are still more, whose paths crossed briefly with my own, who, alas, remain unrecorded – helped make my task not only easier, but infinitely more rewarding. It’s the people you ‘meet’ on the way, and not the ultimate destination, that makes the journey worthwhile; and, in return, each one can claim ownership of a piece of this research.
JARMAN, Adam John
JARMAN, Emma Louise
JARMAN, Olivia Clare
JARMAN, Paul Andrew
JARMAN, Robyn Eileen
JARMAN, Adam John B: 25-05-1971, King George V Hospital, Camperdown
M: 2-7-1994, Glenbrook, NSW, Catherine Annabel.
M: 2-7-1994, Glenbrook, NSW, Catherine Annabel.
Comments: son (Generation -1), Harrison Ferris Jarman, born Nepean
District Hospital, Penrith, 5-4-2003; daughter (Generation -1), Molly
Annabelle Jarman, born Nepean District Hospital, Penrith, 5-10-2006.
JARMAN, Paul Andrew B: 25-05-1971, King George V Hospital, Camperdown.
M: Bonnie Nilsson
Comments: daughters (Generation -1) Ruby Gagabey Nilsson Jarman,
born RPAH, Camperdown, NSW, 9-1-2005; Amber Paris Nilsson Jarman,
Katoomba Hospital, NSW, 4-12-2007.
JARMAN, Robyn Eileen B: 01-11-1977 Nepean District Hospital, Penrith, NSW.
JARMAN, Olivia Clare B: 13-02-1992, Auburn District Hospital, Auburn, NSW.
JARMAN, Emma Louise B: 08-01-1994, Nepean District Hospital, Penrith, NSW.
JARMAN, Alan Leslie
NGO, Helen Van
JARMAN, Adam John
JARMAN, Paul Andrew
JARMAN, Robyn Eileen
JARMAN, Olivia Clare
JARMAN, Emma Louise
F1: JARMAN, Alan Leslie B: 25-05-1942, ‘Lydham’ Private Hospital, Dulwich Hill.
M: (i) 16-12-1967, Marie Olive Ferris, St Andrews Church of England,
(ii) 21-09-1991. Helen Van Ngo, St Augustine’s Catholic Church, Balmain.
JARMAN, Olivia Clare
JARMAN, Emma Louise
M1: NGO, Helen Van Truong B: 22-11-1970, Hung Vuon Hospital, Saigon, Vietnam.
M: 21-09-1991, Alan Leslie Jarman. Balmain, NSW.
JARMAN, Leslie Herbert
NGO, Huu (Peter)
TANG, Muoi (Joy)
TRATHEN, Eileen Margaret
JARMAN, Alan Leslie
F2: JARMAN, Leslie Herbert B: 01-08-1918, Thirroul, NSW
M: (i) 23-12-1939 Lakemba, NSW Eileen Margaret Trathen.
Occupation: Refrigeration Engineer
(ii) (possibly) 1955, Vera Nelson
D: 11-8- 2000, Allora, Queensland (buried 14-08-2000)
Leslie Herbert Jarman
Probably no single person could write a comprehensive biography of Leslie Herbert Jarman. While he forged friendships easily, these were, in virtually all cases, transitory; while he could converse comfortably on a wide range of topics, his own life was seldom, in his eyes, a subject for discussion. He travelled widely in New South Wales and Queensland, but put down few roots, and accumulated almost no possessions.
His longest relationship was with his first (and possibly only) son, Alan (myself); but this, too, was more in the nature of a series of transient encounters: there remained, to the end, long periods of his life – thirty years, at one stage -- of which I had no knowledge, and about which any questions were perfunctorily sidestepped. Probably all his friends could have told the same story.
When asked about his siblings, Leslie invariably dismissed the question, saying that he had long since broken off with all of them (not entirely true, at least in the years of his first marriage; I recall, between 1946 and 1949, at least one visit to his sister Beryl’s home -- possibly in North Belmore) and had no wish for further contact.
It is very likely that the breakdown in Leslie’s relations with his family was caused by his Protestant-Catholic first marriage, to Eileen Margaret Trathen, whose predominantly-Irish family was equally-opposed to the union and never accepted him into its fold. The marriage was, understandably, a stormy one, with break-ups followed by reconciliations. Leslie was employed, during this period, as a refrigeration engineer; I recall him bringing home large red-brown containers of Cornwall’s Malt, which I always understood to be factory-supplied, so perhaps he worked for Cornwall’s (I also recall he had, at some stage, been involved in a work-place accident with a machine belt which had damaged the third finger of his left hand, the crushed nail having never regrown).
In the early years of the marriage, the couple lived at Ruskin Flats, in Manly; subsequently (around 1947) they moved to a shared (with Eileen’s cousin, June Tilney and her husband, Lance) house at 109 Rogers St, Lakemba. Within about two years of the move, the marriage -- still barely a decade old -- ended, suddenly and tragically, when Eileen died from a breast cancer which had advanced so swiftly that diagnosis was only made post-mortem. Notwithstanding that the union had produced a son, seven years old at the time of his mother’s death, Leslie decided that it was time to close this chapter in his life; he quietly detached himself from what remained of his family, and moved on.
When he returned, just as abruptly (and with no forewarning) thirty years later, he was able to report that, in the interim, he had resided – for brief periods in each case – in a large number of country towns in eastern Australia, and had held a variety of jobs (including installing refrigeration equipment at McRae’s in Walcha at around the time I was stationed there as a young teacher, and managing a general store in Willow Tree). Of the relationships forged during that period, he had little to say, though there were reports that he had married, briefly, a second time (a marriage, in 1955, of Leslie Herbert Jarman and Vera Nelson is recorded – registration no. 14365/1955) and may even have had more children. His wanderings had left him no property and few possessions, but he reported that he had found the place he wanted to settle: a tiny southern-Queensland town called Allora, where he had found a peace and acceptance (and, possibly, lack of curiosity) which had previously eluded him.
He did not, however, settle in Allora right away; when next heard from, he had, in his seventies, moved in (as a boarder) to a coastal (Tweed Heads, NSW) town house owned by a widow, Amy Sholz. In Amy he had, clearly, found a soul-mate; their relationship matured from landlady and boarder to caring partners, and for several years there was no more talk of ‘moving on’.
Amy, however, died, and all the property they had shared had been retained in her name; with no possessions except his car and a dog (there was always a dog, and it was always named ‘Max’), he returned to Allora, where, he claimed, he was accepted as if he had never left. By this time (early-to-mid 1990s), he was willing to take short visits with Alan and his new wife, Helen, in Blaxland (not far from Penrith, where the Lack family had lived; when told of this present family-history project, he was happy to locate the dairy – since demolished – which was owned by his uncle Henry, and where he had stayed as a child), and was content to have established cordial relationships with the elder four of his five grandchildren; however, he could seldom bear to be away from Allora for more than a few weeks. It was from there, in 2000, that he entered Toowoomba Hospital following a heart-attack; his insistence, in defiance of advice from doctors, on returning to his home town resulted in a position being made available for him at the Nursing Home in Allora, where he passed away peacefully within a few weeks of admission. His funeral, in Toowoomba, was attended by his son and granddaughter (Robyn Eileen Jarman), by a few friends from Allora, and by the daughter of Amy Scholz, who remembered him with genuine fondness.
M2: TRATHEN, Eileen Margaret B: 10-09-1917 (Annandale, NSW)
M: 23-12-1939 (Lakemba, NSW) Leslie Herbert Jarman.
Occupation: Seamstress (Strand Arcade, Sydney)
D: 27-12-1949 (Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury, NSW). The Registry of
Deaths notice (25957/1949) erroneously records her mother’s name
Eileen Margaret Trathen
Members of Eileen Trathen’s family always claimed she was a “dead ringer” for movie star Gail Russell; she was a petite, shy, almost-too-thin, brown-eyed redhead. Eileen’s short life, however, bore scant resemblance to the Hollywood dream: born in the midst of World War I (which took her father and her uncle before she was even four months old); embarking on her teenage years just as the Great Depression was sweeping Australia, on her marriage in the first year of World War II, and on motherhood in the very week that Sydney came under attack from Japanese midget submarines (which had entered the harbour less than two kilometres from her Manly home); and, finally, losing her life barely four years after the war had ended (just as Australia was on the threshold of hitherto-undreamed of prosperity), the victim of a cancer untreated -- indeed, not even diagnosed – by a hospital system still coping with the diseases and injuries which are the inevitable aftermath of war.
Although a bright student, she was forced by the circumstances of the time to leave school before completing her education, finding work as a seamstress (at one stage, in the Strand Arcade, Sydney). As a young adult, she was interested in music (she kept a note-book in which she wrote out the lyrics of the song hits of the time; her favourite was ‘Love Walked In’ by George and Ira Gershwin), and collected big-band records by Artie Shaw, Tommy Dorsey and Glenn Miller. She was a debutante, and, with her uncle Max Powell as partner, was presented at the ballroom above Mark Foy’s, Sydney; a photograph of the couple appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald at the time.
In a staunchly Irish-Catholic household, her determination to proceed with marriage to a Protestant must have been a rare act of self-assertion; neither of the newlyweds was accepted by the other’s family, and the stresses and strains this placed on the marriage helped ensure that the last ten years of her life -- juggling motherhood with work in an era where full-time motherhood was considered the ‘norm’, and living in various rental accommodation (the last of which was a shared house, with her cousin, June Tilney, and her husband, Lance) – took their toll on her already-fragile health. Her mother, ‘Lilly’ Trathen, was frequently called on for support in looking after their son; Alan’s first school, in fact, was in Hurlstone Park, very near his grandmother’s home but several suburbs from the family home at 109 Rogers St, Lakemba.
During 1949, Eileen’s health quite-abruptly worsened, and tuberculosis was feared; on Christmas morning, she was rushed to Canterbury Hospital and placed in the tubercular ward. She died two days later, and was subsequently found to have breast cancer. She was thirty-two years old.
NGO, Helen Van
F2: NGO, Huu (Peter) B: 1-5-1943
M: Muoi (Joy) Tang
D: 27-1-1992 (Westmead, NSW, Australia)
Huu (Peter) Ngo.
Both Huu Ngo and his future wife, Muoi Tang, lived in the same street in Cholon (the Chinese Quarter of Saigon): Tran Quy (District 11), where, eventually, their wedding was held.
Before his marriage, Huu served with the South Vietnam army during the American War, at which time he almost lost his life (on a march in a party of 25, he was among the first five when they were suddenly attacked by North Vietnamese soldiers; the last twenty, behind him, were gunned down). On returning home, Huu declined to return to the front, going into hiding in an upstairs room in a house in Tran Quy St. After his marriage he began a career as a maker of spectacles, which wife Muoi delivered. During this period their only daughter, Truong (Helen) Van Ngo (Generation 1) was born, followed by sons Kien (Ken) and Han (Victor) .
In an alley running off the same street was an upstairs printery owned by Muoi’s brother, and the arrival of the Vietcong into Saigon in 1975 necessitated Huu, Muoi and the children moving into this home, from where Huu continued his work.
Huu was eventually forced to flee to Indonesia (1978), where he was soon joined by other family members. At this time the families were split up, some being accepted into the USA, others into Canada. Huu, Muoi, and the three children were eventually reunited and were accepted into Australia (May, 1979), living for a time at the refugee camp in Herne Bay (Riverwood). He applied for -- and was granted -- Australian citizenship, at which time he dropped his Vietnamese first name, adopting instead the name ‘Peter’.
Peter worked in several semi-skilled jobs in Australia, and at one stage owned a take-away food shop in Auburn; but he was never able to resume his career as a spectacle-maker. For a brief period he was part-owner of a Chinese restaurant opposite the Capitol Theatre in Haymarket. When this venture failed, he obtained a part-time job as a kitchen-hand in a restaurant in Westmead, and it was while travelling there (with son Victor as passenger) from his home in Lidcombe that he misread the signs announcing new roadworks on the M4 motorway, and was, consequently, fatally injured in an accident at the site of the new (and still under-construction) tollbooths. He died at Westmead Hospital two days later, less than three weeks before the birth of his first grandchild, Olivia.
M2: TANG. Muoi (Joy) B: 1-8-1942
M: Huu (Peter) Ngo
D: 4-5-1995 (Lidcombe, NSW, Australia)
Muoi (Joy) Tang
Youngest of five children (two brothers, currently living in Sydney, and two sisters, living in Canada, and USA), Muoi, as a young bride, lived with her husband at her brother’s upstairs printery in Cholon, Saigon. Fleeing – with her mother and three children, but without her husband -- to Australia in 1978 (the family actually arrived in May, 1979), she was, eventually, reunited with Huu, and had a fourth child (Michael) in Brisbane in 1980. Finally settling in Swete St, Auburn, she lost her mother (to tuberculosis) and her husband (in a car accident) in the same week; she, herself, lived only three more years before succumbing to lung cancer (the first of the five to die). She did, however, live long enough to ensure that her five children received a full Australian education (she herself had been educated to only primary level), and she even saw two of her grandchildren, the first Australian generation (Olivia Clare, whom she christened ‘Leh Wah’, and Emma Louise, whom she called ‘Leh Mun’.)
EGAN, Hanora (Norah) Ellen (‘Lilly’)
JARMAN, Arthur Henry
LACK, Edith Ellen Sara
NGO, Mun Yong
TRATHEN, Norman Percy
JARMAN, Leslie Herbert
F3: JARMAN, Arthur Henry B: 20-10-1892, Crown Rd, Pyrmont. (Reg. no. 3141/1892)
M: 24-12-1913, Penrith, NSW. Edith Ellen Sara Lack
Comments: no record of death in NSW. His brother, Frederick Leslie
Jarman, is recorded as having died, 1963, in Burwood, NSW.
M3: LACK, Edith Ellen Sara B: 1891, Campbelltown.
M: 24-12-1913, Penrith, NSW. Arthur Henry Jarman
Comments: Edith Ellen Sara Lack’s entry (30530/1943) in the NSW
Register of Deaths has ‘Erra’ instead of ‘Sara’ for her third Christian name.
NGO, Huu (Peter)
F3: NGO, Mun Yong B:
M: Ngan Diep D:
M3: DIEP, Ngan B: 29-1-1915. (Shanghai, China)
M: Mun Yong Ngo.
D: 30-3-09, Ashfield.
Ngan Diep has been a resident of China, Vietnam, and (since 1977) Australia. She was adopted by her parents, who subsequently had children of their own (the family of her younger step-brother still live in Vietnam and currently reside in the house originally owned by her son’s brother-in-law).
Having been accepted into Australia as a war refugee, Ngan Diep lived with her son and his wife in various homes in Coff’s Harbour, Brisbane, and, eventually, Sydney. When, firstly, her son, and, soon afterwards, her daughter-in-law died, she continued to serve as the matriarch in the household of her three grandsons at Lidcombe, seeing her four grandchildren gain educational and professional success in their adopted country.
TANG, Muoi (Joy)
F3: TAT, Linh B: 24-6-1904, China
M: c 1928, China. Tang Khoan.
D: 27-7-1963, Vietnam
M3: TANG, Khoan B: 9-12-1908, China
M: c 1928, China. Tat Linh
D: 18-12-1992, Auburn, NSW.
TRATHEN, Eileen Margaret
F3: TRATHEN, Norman Percy B: 31-8-1887
M: 1914, Hanora (Norah) Ellen (‘Lilly’) Egan
D: December 8, 1917, Holdsworthy, NSW. (death certificate 16270/1917)
Norman Percy Trathen and his siblings.
Norman Percy Trathen, a storeman/packer who aspired to join the Police Force, following in the footsteps of his elder brother, Benjamin (Norman’s name is listed – no. 484 – in the New South Wales Police Gazette Index, 1911, p. 47; see http://www.unlockthepast.com.au/sites/default/files/samples/AU2103-1911s.pdf) was born in Orange, NSW, and was living at Rose Cottage, Epsom Rd, Waterloo, when, newly-married, the Great War put his career aspirations ‘on hold’; seeking enlistment (27-3-1916) in the Australian Imperial Force, he was rejected for active service overseas because of a medical problem (noted on his application as ‘unfit varicocele’), but later (16-7-1916) accepted for Home Service (application no. 1020) and posted to Holdsworthy Barracks (near Liverpool, NSW) as a guard of prisoners of war and German-Australians interned for the duration of hostilities (a hand-carved – by one of the German interns – wooden box remains a family heirloom).
Norman’s army service lasted just over a year; while on duty, he contracted appendicitis, which, owing to a delay in treatment, developed into fatal peritonitis. His wife (Lilly), mother of a three-month-old baby girl (Eileen Margaret), was sent for, but he died (8-12-1917) before her arrival at the camp hospital. He was buried, with full military honours, two days later, on Lilly’s birthday (10-12-1917). A still-extant plaque and memorial scroll commemorating his service to his country was issued (9-4-1923) to his widow by the Commonwealth Government.
Norman’s brother, Benjamin (died 1929) was a police constable at Redfern when the following report appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald, 11-1-1893: “Mr. Giles, D.S.M., presided in Redfern Court. James Day, 21, was fined £4, with an alternative of three months' imprisonment, for having used language unfit for publication in Alderson Street, Redfern. Kate Clarke, 28, and Mary Cleary, 28, were charged with having assaulted, Constable Trathen. They were fined 40s each, or 21 days' imprisonment.” (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/13893085). Benjamin eventually became a police sergeant, and then an inspector, given command of the station at Redfern; while in charge, he befriended the poet Henry Lawson (who was frequently homeless and impoverished) and allowed him to sleep in one of the cells when he was either drunk or unable to afford accommodation. In gratitude, Lawson dedicated a copy of his work, To an Old Mate, to Ben.
Benjamin married Linda Maud(e) Duff in 1904, in Redfern. On Monday, 10-6-1929, the following article (with photograph) appeared in The Sydney Morning Herald:
“INSPECTOR TRATHEN. FOUND DEAD IN BED. Inspector Benjamin Trathen, officer-in charge of George-street North police division, was found dead in his bed by his wife at his residence, Lewin-street, Earlwood, early yesterday morning. Death was due to heart failure. He had had 37 years' service.
Inspector Trathen was in his sixtieth year, and was due for long-service leave before retirement in two months' time. A native of the Orange district, he joined the police force in 1892. After a period of service at Redfern, he did traffic duty for some time and was then transferred to Clarence street. The bulk of his service was at George street North. Following his promotion to the rank of inspector on July 1, 1927 he was In charge of the night wireless patrol for about six months, and was then placed In charge of the George street North division. He is survived by a widow and three children.
The funeral will leave the late Inspector's residence for Rookwood at 1 45 o'clock this afternoon.” (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/16552404?searchTerm=trathen&searchLimits=)
Norman and Benjamin’s sister, Emmeline Matilda, after an illness of some eighteen months, committed suicide (Friday, 3-5-1901, at age 26), “by a revolver bullet, which is particularly rare on the part of a woman”, according to the newspaper report in The Sydney Morning Herald on the following Wednesday (8-5-1901, at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/64450870?searchTerm=trathen&searchLimits=). Benjamin was in the house at the time, and heard the shot, upstairs; he reached her while she was still alive, and her last words, on seeing him, were, “Shoot me, Ben”. Their sister, Margaret Lilian Trathen, was also present. (Benjamin and Maude also had a daughter, Emmeline, known as “Emmie”; she lived well into the 1950s, with her mother, in Hurlstone Park).
M3: EGAN, Hanora (Norah) Ellen (‘Lilly’)
B: 10-12-1889, Brisbane, Queensland (Qld BD&M ref: 1890/ B044990).
M: 1914, Norman Percy Trathen.
D: 5-9-1979, Concord Repatriation Hospital, NSW.
Hanora (Norah) Ellen (‘Lilly’) Egan.
The eldest of thirteen children (one of two – the second being Patrick James (1891) -- born in Brisbane, where her mother and father had been married in 1888), Hanora was usually referred to in family circles as ‘Lilly’, short for ‘Elizabeth’, which was the first name preferred by her mother and used at her baptism. She believed that her registered Christian name was ‘Norah’, and signed documents with the initials ‘N.E.’; however, her actual registration (in 1890, although she was born in December, 1889) gives her name as ‘Hanora Ellen’.
Although a bright student, Lilly’s position in the family obliged her to leave school at age 14 and enter employment. Her one marriage, at the beginning of World War I, was short-lived, as her husband enlisted on 16-7-1916 (at which time their place of residence was 299 Nelson St, Annandale), and died, on service, little more than a year later (by which time Lilly had moved closer to her family, and resided at St Elmo, Cronulla St, Carlton), leaving a three-month-old daughter, Eileen Margaret.
As well as losing her husband in World War 1, Lilly also lost her younger brother (Jack; actually, ‘John Joseph’), who was part of the Australian campaign in France (39th Batallion), having enlisted (after earlier applications were rejected because of his age) at age 18, on 19-9-1916. He survived until after the Armistice, and continued to serve in England, where (in Trowbridge), he sought leave to marry (13-9-1919) an 18-year-old French girl (Yvonne Marguerite Magnier) whom he had met either there, or earlier, in France, wiring excitedly to his family of the couple’s imminent arrival in Sydney on the ‘Shropshire’. Jack never reached home; his war injuries quickly put him in the ship’s hospital, and he died on board (20-12-1919); Yvonne, also seriously ill, arrived in Australia as a new widow with a new baby (Jacqueline), and Lilly, with a two-year-old daughter of her own and a smattering of high-school French, took both mother and baby under her care until Yvonne’s death -- after which she continued to care for Jacqueline (Mrs Maurice (?) Lonergan). A second brother, Daniel, also died in 1919 (death certificate 9851/1919); it is not known if this was also as a result of war service.
A frugal woman, Lilly augmented the allowance from the government for War Widows with income from employment at David Jones, one of Sydney’s first major department stores (at subsequent Anzac Day parades, she was able to point proudly to the various banners on which she had worked, as an embroidress), and, in 1937, bought (for five hundred and thirty pounds) a house at 9 Hampden St, Hurlstone Park, where she and Eileen lived until Eileen’s marriage, and where Lilly continued to reside until 1962.
When her own daughter, Eileen, died prematurely (1949), leaving a seven-year-old son, Alan Leslie (Generation 1), Lilly, already aged 60, once again undertook the role of child-rearer, and, in the absence of assistance from Alan’s father, returned to work to support her new dependant. Her last employment was in a cake shop at Hurlstone Terminus, on the corner of Old Canterbury and New Canterbury Rds, a short walk from Alan’s secondary school (Canterbury Boys’ High School).
Fiercely independent, Lilly insisted on living alone through her seventies and eighties, selling (1962) the house in Hurlstone Park in favour of a lower-maintenance home unit at 10/30 Ewart St, Marrickville. A series of falls sustained while living there eventually required her hospitalisation and, ultimately, the amputation of both legs. She died, at Concord Repatriation Hospital, a few weeks before her ninetieth birthday (death notice 2174/1979); she is buried in the cemetery of St Paul’s Anglican Church, Emu Plains, at the foot of the Blue Mountains, which was to become the home of all of her great-great-grandchildren.
There is lot more. My parents are retired school teachers who live in a Hill Station called Mussoorie Uttaranchal, North India. I’m sorry I did not quiz my Mom about Grandma, but this is all I can remember.”
CORRIGAN, Bridget Rose
EGAN, Daniel Joseph
LACK, Robert Henry (Harry)
POTTINGER, Annie Georgina Keating
F4: UNKNOWN B:
M4: UNKNOWN B:
EGAN, Hanora (Norah) Ellen (Lilly)
F4: EGAN, Daniel Joseph B: 1859
M: 11-1-1888, Brisbane, Queensland. Bridget Rose Corrigan (Qld BM&D
D: 1-3-1906, Liverpool, NSW.
M4: CORRIGAN, Bridget Rose B: 1867, Burn, County Clare, Ireland.
Arrival in Australia: between 1881 and 1883.
M: 11-1-1888, Daniel Egan. Brisbane, Queensland
D: 6-11-1956, Bexley, NSW (death certificate 31694/1956).
Siblings: Patrick Corrigan, died Randwick, NSW (death Certificate no.
7090/1933). James Joseph Corrigan, died Redfern, NSW (death certificate no. 21346/1955).
Bridget Rose Corrigan
To her many great-grandchildren in the 1950s, who dutifully came, at Christmas and on special occasions, to pay homage to the undisputed matriarch of the family, Bridget Rose Corrigan was, undoubtedly, a formidable figure, seen always in mourning clothes (she had been widowed nearly half a century earlier, but had worn only black from then on) and ensconced in an armchair -- over her lap, a blanket which reached the floor – from which she was never seen to rise; however, there seemed no physical justification for the name by which she was always referred to (and addressed): “Fat Mum”. She was, in fact, quite small, and, although plump, carried far less weight – one noted with amusement -- than many of the descendants who so referred to her.
It was not until after her death, on reflection – and by examining old birth and death certificates, as well as recalling half-remembered anecdotes from years past – that an inkling emerged of what the name might have implied. For, at least two of the daughters and sons who never failed to attend the family gatherings, and were treated as siblings by the others, were, in fact, not Bridget and Daniel’s at all. Yet there was no hint of this in family relationships; Bridget, with her Irish brogue untempered by more than six decades in her adopted home, presided over a close-knit family whose devotion to her – and each other – never wavered.
According to the records, Bridget and Daniel had eight children: Hanora (born 1889) and Patrick (1891) born in Brisbane; and then, in Sydney, Daniel J (born 1893, died 1919), Michael (born 1895, died 1958), Julia (1896), John J (born 1899, died 1932, always called ‘Jack’), Mary (1900), and Patrick Joseph (born 1903, died 1975). By the time of the birth (and death) of Patrick J, she was 36 years old, and near the end of her child-bearing years; three years later, she was a widow. Yet, in 1909, whern Bridget was over 40, Alice Agnes was born, with ‘Bridget’ listed as her mother’s Christian name and no name for the father. And the youngest child – no birth certificate has been found, so we cannot tell just how much younger, but she always seemed to belong to a quite-different era – Veronica M (known always as ‘Bonnie’), was born several years after Alice (‘Bonnie’ was married in 1934, to Maxwell A Powell, giving her name as ‘Veronica M Egan’).
There is evidence of still more children in Bridget’s family: Hanora (Lilly), the eldest, always insisted she was one of thirteen children – fourteen if one counted the (unrecorded) stillborn twin of Patrick Joseph. Since it is hard to believe Lilly could have miscounted by three, one can only conclude that there are other children -- unrecorded in the Registry of Births and not present at the family gatherings of the 1940s and 1950s -- who were, nonetheless, raised in the home of Bridget Corrigan (either before or after husband Daniel’s death) as her own (there is, in the NSW Registry of Deaths, a James J Egan, son of Daniel and Bridget, who died in 1905; possibly, this refers to the ‘Patrick’ born 1891 in Queensland, since he seems, otherwise, to have unaccountably disappeared from the records).
‘Fat Mum’, then, would appear to equate with ‘other Mum’: a name coined to describe a woman who, as well as being a ‘real’ mother to eight, was a surrogate mother to five. That at least two of these remained devoted to her until her death in Bexley, NSW, in 1956, says much for the character of Bridget Rose Corrigan, whose full story, unfortunately, may never be told.
JARMAN, Arthur Henry
F4: JARMAN, Alfred B: 22-8-1871, Tindale’s Hollow, via Bathurst, NSW.
M: 23-4-1892, Sydney, NSW. Annie Georgina Keating Pottinger
D: 1947, Newtown area (probably Camperdown).
Comments: two elder sisters (Eleanor and Eliza Ann) born (1861 and 62,
respectively) in Parramatta, NSW; elder brothers William Thomas – born
13-6-1863 at Emu Plains, married (1896, Bourke) Louisa Harriet Nowland,
daughter of Peter Nowland and Louisa Anne Fradgley – and Charles –
born 1865 at Penrith, married (8-7-1893) Lucy Hannah Hammond Harvey
(born Picton, 12-8-1871) at Petersham. Sister Emma Sarah (born c 1874,
Bathurst) died at Camperdown, 1949.
William Thomas Jarman (brother of Alfred Jarman) and his descendants.
The following information on the life of William Thomas Jarman was provided, initially, by Frances Louise Hoch (nee Jarman), granddaughter of William, during a visit (from Cambridge, England) to Sydney in February, 2010; subsequently, Frances’s sister, Celia Sheppard (of Somerset, England), supplied additional information which has been incorporated in this summary.
William Thomas Jarman was born in Emu Plains on 13-6-1863. He was the second son of George Jarman and Emma Starr, and the first to be born in New South Wales. His elder brother, George H Jarman, was born in England and travelled with his parents to New South Wales at age 1; two elder sisters, Eleanor (born and died in 1861, and Eliza Jane, born in 1862, married Sydney Yates in Wellington, NSW, and died 1928) were born in Parramatta, NSW, within two years of their parents’ arrival in Australia.
William Thomas married (Bourke, 1896) Louise Harriet Nowland (born 7-7-1876, died 20-3-1950), daughter of Peter Nowland and Louisa Anne Fradgley, and had at least three sons: Lawrence Jarman (died 1967), William E Jarman (1902-1973), and Maurice W Jarman (1898-1899).
William Thomas and Louise Harriet eventually moved to Western Australia, leaving Lawrence behind to live with Mrs E Smith, in Paddington (son William E eventually took up residence in Hurlstone Park, close to the home of ‘Lilly’ Egan (Generation 3); it is probable that the ‘other’ Alan Jarman who lived in Hurlstone Park in the 1950s-60s was part of this family line).
Lawrence Jarman attended Newtown Superior Public School, now Newtown High School of the Performing Arts; a war memorial erected in front of the school (King Street, Newtown) includes his name as one of the ex-students who saw active service in World War 1. Returning from his naval commission, he trained for the Anglican priesthood at St John’s, Armidale, from where he took up appointment with the Brotherhood of the Good Shepherd, Gilgandra. He eventually travelled to England, where he married Freda Jarman (this was her maiden name); the coincidence of their surnames does not imply a family relationship, as Freda was Scottish.
Lawrence and Freda had three children: twins Adrian Lawrence and Celia Katharine, and Frances Louise Jarman, who provided this information to Alan Jarman at a meeting in Newtown (as part of a pilgrimage to photograph her father’s war memorial inscription) during her ‘family research’ visit to Sydney (February, 2010).
M4: POTTINGER, Annie Georgina Keating
B: 12-12-1873, South Grafton, Clarence River, NSW.
M: 23-4-1892, Sydney, NSW, Alfred Jarman.
Siblings: Frederick L E Pottinger, Charles Thomas Curwen Pottinger, Eliza
Harriet Susan Pottinger. Also possibly a half-brother, Clarence Deane
Pottinger (illegitimate, born 1880, after her parents had separated)
Comments: Annie’s uncle (her father’s half-brother) was Eldred Curwen
Pottinger, famed as ‘the Hero of Heart’.
LACK, Edith Ellen Sara
F4: LACK, Robert Henry (Harry) B: 15-2-1862
M: (i) 1888, Mary Stewart (died 1898)
(ii) Mary Mulholland (died 1930)
D: 25-8-1948 (reported in Nepean Times 2-9-1948)
Robert Henry (‘Harry’) Lack.
Reported in his obituary in the Nepean Times (2-9-1948) as “that fine gentleman and friend of many….a good citizen”, Robert Henry Lack was known to everyone as ‘Henry’ (ultimately, ‘Harry’), doubtless to avoid confusion with his elder brother, also Robert Lack (whose equally-complimentary obituary, in the Nepean Times, 10-3-1917, is at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/86148421?searchTerm=%22Robert%20Lack%22&searchLimits=).
Born in Campbelltown, Harry (with brother Robert) took over an outback sheep station at Enngonnia, north of Bourke, moving back to Campbelltown after the death of his first wife, Mary Stewart (6-1-1898), reportedly from shock following the illness of one of her children. While in Campbelltown, he married a second time, to Mary Mulholland (born c 1856), daughter of Harry and Mary Mulholland, who had, for 28 years, resided with the Redalls in Campbelltown. (Their son, Harry, known as ‘Bal’, served in World War I and died as a result).
The Lacks moved, first, to Liverpool, and then to Penrith (approximately 1908), where they leased Thornton Hall and opened a dairy on the Castlereagh Road. His elder sister, Sarah, who, as a four-year-old, was the sole survivor of the 1849 murder by James Richardson, resided with him there. He sent to Enngonnia for his brother, Robert, reportedly saying, “I have bought a dairy for you”, but when Robert arrived he found that the ‘purchase’ was, in fact, the licence of the Red Cow Hotel, which came to be commonly referred to as the Lack Hotel.
Harry Lack was, it was reported, a community-minded citizen, being an alderman of Penrith Council for about 6 years, a member of the Penrith General Cemetery Trust (the cemetery in which he was eventually buried), a patron of the Penrith sub-branch of the R.S.S.A.I.L.A., and a participant in various public movements. In 1947 he had his arm amputated in order to stop the spread of the cancer which eventually killed him (25-8-1948, age 86).
In his memory, a street in Werrington today bears the name ‘Lack Place’.
Rhonda Hunter (“My line is Andrews, Haddow, they were from Werrington/St Marys in the early settlement of South Creek. Their records are with Penrith City Library in the Local History Section”) relates this anecdote re the Red Cow Hotel: “My Grandmother Mavis nee Haddow worked for a Mrs Lack as an upstairs maid for the Red Cow Hotel then known as Lack Hotel. My Grandfather Leo Robinson boarded at the the Red Cow as he was a railway worker in Penrith at the time, they met on the stairs one day on his return from work, he rushed past and cleaned himself up and asked her to the pictures, the rest is Family History. I remember her telling us that story when I was a little girl. That was 1927 when my Grandmother was 19 years old.”
Peter Shaw (email@example.com), in an email dated 2-2-2011, reports that “my grandmother, Ivy, was one of Robert Henry Lack and Mary Stewart’s daughters. The ‘other’ Harry Lack (who died young after being wounded in WWI) was her brother, and Robert Henry’s son. She also had two sisters, Olive (nicknamed Lil), and Edith (nicknamed Tot). Her mother, Mary Stewart, died when she was a small child…she was raised by her grandmother, Ellen Lack…Ivy married Roland Shaw in 1915. Roland (my grandfather) died after being gored by a bull on their farm at Cranebrook in 1956 (the year I was born) and Ivy died in 1983, aged 89. She had four sons, one of which was my dad”.
M4: STEWART, Mary B: 1869
M: Robert Henry (‘Harry’) Lack.
D: 6-1-1898. Enngonnia
Comments: The marriage registration for Mary Stewart and Robert Lack
transposes the names of the mothers of the bride and groom; Robert Lack
should be paired with Ellen Matthews, and Charles Stewart with Fanny
NGO, Mun Yong
F4: UNKNOWN B:
M4: UNKNOWN B:
F4: UNKNOWN B:
M4: UNKNOWN B:
F4: UNKNOWN B:
M4: UNKNOWN B:
TRATHEN, Norman Percy
F4: TRATHEN, John B: circa 1835, Devonshire, UK.
M: 16-12-1862, Margaret Patterson. Candiangullong, NSW.
(Arrival in Australia: c 1846, Victoria, with parents and brother, Benjamin)
Occupation: Miner (Candiangullong, 1862: from marriage Certificate).
Storekeeper (Candiangullong 1874: from Birth Certificate of Emmeline
Matilda Trathen). Night watchman (Redfern, 1899: from death
certificate Jessie Theresa Trathen).
D: 1901 (NSW Death Certificate 8092/1901)
Siblings: Benjamin Trathen, B: 1840; M: 1863 (Susan Bailey); D: 16-9-
1885 (Four Mile Creek, via Orange). Walter Trathen, B: M: 1863
(Ellen Bailey) D: 1910
Benjamin and Walter Trathen.
The two younger brothers of John Trathen married sisters (Susan and Ellen Bailey), possibly in a joint ceremony, or very close together, as the marriages were registered at the same time (in the NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, the name ‘Trathen’ for the marriages of Benjamin and Walter is misspelled as ‘Trathone’).The parents of Susan and Ellen were George Bailey (born 1806, Cornwall, UK) and Isabella Bennetts (born 1811, Cornwall, UK; christened 3-6-1811), who were married 10-8-1830. Isabella’s parents were John Bennetts and Mary Davies, married 8-12-1812. The following information on this family was extracted from the website http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/9/9874.htm: “On 27 Feb 1858, Isabella Bailey of Camborne, daughter of John & Mary Bennett (both dead), housekeeper, and her children (all born in Camborne) Elizabeth (23), domestic servant, Ellen (21), milliner, Emily (19), milliner, Louisa (17), domestic servant, Susan (14), domestic servant, and George (8), arrived in New South Wales, Australia per S. S. Stebonheath. Isabella's husband George Bailey was already living in the Colony (in Newtown, Sydney)”.
Walter and Ellen’s son, Benjamin, died in 1929 (the same year as Benjamin, son of John and Margaret).
M4: PATERSON, Margaret B: circa 1846, Isle of Man.
M: 16-12-1862, John Trathen. Candiangullong, NSW. Edward S Kelly, guardian.
D: 26-10-1916, 3 Rowley St, Camperdown, NSW.
DAWES (DAWE, DOW), Mary
MATTHEWS, Eleanor (Ellen)
PATTERSON (PATERSON), William
POTTINGER, Lionel Henry
STEWART, Jane (Jessie)
CORRIGAN, Bridget Rose
F5: CORRIGAN, Patrick B:
M: Bridget McNamara
M5: McNAMARA, Bridget B:
M: Patrick Corrigan
F5: EGAN, Michael B:
M: Elizabeth Daly
M5: DALY, Elizabeth B:
M: Michael Egan
F5: JARMAN, George B: c March, 1836 (Steeple Morden, Cambridgeshire)
M: 5-12-1857, Emma Starr, Wendy Cum Shingay, Cambridgeshire.
D: 1887, Camperdown, NSW (one researcher says 5-12)
Unlike siblings David (christened 27-7-1834), John (christened 27-7-1834), Thomas (christened 20-5-1836, buried 17-3-1844), James (christened 18-3-1838) and Susan (christened 14-3-1847), no birth or christening record is held for George Jarman (born after John but before James) at Steeple Morden, Cambridgeshire. His existence is, however, proved by both the 1841 and 1851 Census records for Steeple Morden ref. nos: for 1841, folio 3B HO 107/63/22; for 1851, Ref. HO 107/1707. While living in Steeple Morden he worked as an agricultural labourer. His marriage to Emma Starr is recorded in Batch 73311603, sheet 66 0822760.
George and Emma (with son, George H, born 10-1858) left Liverpool (13-11-1859) bound for Sydney, NSW, on ‘Fitzjames’ (fare: one pound per person), arriving 20-2-1860. Their first Australian-born children were daughters (Eleanor and Eliza Ann, born 1861 and 1862, respectively, in Parramatta); a son, William Thomas (see Generation 4), was born 13-6-1863 at Emu Plains; he married (1896) Louisa Harriet Nowland (born 7-7-1876) in Bourke, and subsequently moved to Western Australia before returning to Sydney, where he died in 1942 (one of William’s sons, William E Jarman (1902-1973), took up residence in Hurlstone Park, close to the home of ‘Lilly’ Egan (Generation 3)). Another son, Charles, was born in Penrith in 1865, and, finally, Alfred (Generation 4) near Bathurst in 1871; it is clear that the family moved gradually westward before, eventually, returning to Sydney, where George died (Camperdown) in 1887 (death certificate record is 4022/1887).
M5: STARR, Emma B: 1836 (Parish of Wendy, Shingay, Cambridgeshire)
M: 5-12-1857, George Jarman, Cambridgeshire, UK
D: 1887, Sydney, NSW.
Comments: according to the passenger list on the ‘Fitzjames’, Emma Starr
(a Methodist, as was her husband) could both read and write.
LACK, Robert Henry (‘Harry’)
F5: LACK, Robert B: 4-3-1824, Campbelltown.
M: 25-8-1845, Ellen Matthews, St Peter’s, Campbelltown, NSW.
D: 7-12-1901, Campbelltown. (Buried: St Peter’s).
Siblings: Eliza Lack (married William Hannon), Sarah Sophia Lack (3-8-1828
– 20-1-1849), Elizabeth Mary Lack (1831 - 1918).
Robert Lack was eight years old when his father, Robert (Generation 6) died, and ten years old when his mother, Elizabeth Eggleton (Generation 6) remarried, to James Richardson, the man who would eventually murder three members of the family and permanently injure Robert’s infant daughter, Sarah.
His occupation officially listed as ‘Carrier’, Robert lived, worked, married (24-4-1845), and died in Campbelltown, and his still-surviving headstone in St Peter’s Church shows him, his wife, and eldest daughter, Sarah (27-8-1845 – 16-2-1924), buried together.
Sarah Sophia Lack, sister of Robert.
Baptised by the Rev Thomas Reddall (5-6-1831, the year of birth of her younger sister, Elizabeth Mary), Sarah Sophia Lack was just three years old when her father died, and her life seems to have never recovered from this setback. When Sarah was aged six, her mother (who had been denounced in a report by the local policeman as a woman of “bad moral character” after a succession of hasty attempts to find a husband) remarried, this time to James Richardson, well-regarded sexton of the local church. The marriage was not a happy one, Richardson’s attentions to Sarah and her younger sister being later cited as the cause of frequent arguments. When elder brother Robert married Ellen Matthews (1845), Richardson became sole male in a family which included three daughters. In 1848, ten months before her murder by Richardson, Sarah had a baby daughter; the identity of the father remains unknown, and the baby was never baptised.
On January 20, 1849, following a drinking bout, James Richardson, who, by that time, had been ejected from the one-roomed dwelling on the Sydney Road by his wife and Sarah (the younger sister, Elizabeth Mary, having been removed from the home by the local Minister, Thomas Reddall), returned to the cottage, armed with an axe and a heavy candlestick, and murdered twenty-year-old Sarah, her infant daughter, and her mother, at the same time seriously wounding (and leaving for dead) Sarah’s four-year-old niece (Robert and Ellen’s daughter, also named Sarah, who was staying with her grandmother and aunt at the time). He then buried the weapons, and, in the middle of the night, still bloodied but now sober and calm, knocked at the door of the home of the local police constable and confessed to the crime. At his trial, Richardson’s inappropriate attachment to Sarah and Elizabeth Mary was tendered as evidence; he, in turn, blamed the bad behaviour of the girls for the unhappy home conditions, and had, according to a witness, arranged only days before the murder to desert the family and embark on a droving position to Adelaide.
Elizabeth Mary Lack, sister of Robert.
Born in 1831, the year before her father died, Elizabeth Mary, youngest sister of Sarah Sophia, managed, in 1849, to escape the fate of her mother, sister, and niece, thanks to the intervention of the local minister, Thomas Reddall, who -- apparently aware of the domestic situation and its potential danger to the seventeen-year-old girl – had, just three weeks prior to the murder, organised for her a position “in service” with a family in Sydney.
Following the violent death of her family, her (possibly unofficial) engagement to mail coach driver James Fowler was broken off; Elizabeth Mary subsequently returned to the home of her uncle, William Eggleton (spelled ‘Egleton’ in the 1814 marriage records), the son of first-fleeters William Eggleton and Mary Dickenson (Generation 7), and his wife Sophia Rugles (Ruglas, Ruglass), eventually marrying (19-1-1852, in Dapto) her first cousin: William and Sophia’s son, John Eggleton (John’s sister, Maria (1828-1908) married (1-9-1846) George Fowler, son of Henry Fowler and Mary Potterton, who appears to be unrelated to Elizabeth’s ex-fiance, James (who was probably the youngest son (born 30-10-1824) of William Fowler and Elizabeth Seymour); coincidentally, the daughter of George and Maria Fowler, Mary Ann, became Mrs Joseph Millard, and their daughter, Edith Annie, married David Duff, uncle of Maud Duff, the sister-in-law -- she was married to his brother, Benjamin -- of Norman Percy Trathen (Generation 3), thus establishing a prior connection of the two families before the marriage of Norman’s daughter -- and niece of Benjamin and Maude -- Eileen Trathen (Generation 2) to Leslie Herbert Jarman (Generation 2), grandson of Elizabeth Mary’s nephew, Robert Henry Lack).
The daughter of William Eggleton and Sophia Rugles (and, thus, sister of John Eggleton), Mary Eggleton (spelled ‘Eagleton’ in the marriage records), born 1818, married (1833) John Haydon (Hayden), born 1807, of Campbelltown, whose elder sister, Ann Hayden (born 1806), married George Simpson, who accompanied John Oxley on two of his expeditions, and is mentioned in the journal (27-11-1818) of Governor Lachlan Macquarie.
Having outlived her husband (who died in 1903), Elizabeth Mary Lack -- regarded by relatives as “the pretty one” of the Lack girls -- spent the last years of her life in Canterbury, where she was buried at age 87 (15-10-1918).
M5: MATTHEWS, Eleanor (Ellen) B: 7-8-1825
M: 25-8-1845, Robert Lack, St Peter’s, Campbelltown.
F5: PATTERSON (PATERSON), William B: 1820 (Douglass, Isle of Man)
M: Pre-1849 (Isle of Man). Jane Stewart
M5: STEWART, Jane (Jessie) B: 1819 (Argyleshire, Scotland)
Occupation: House Servant
M: Pre-1849 (Isle of Man) William Patterson
William Patterson and Jane Stewart.
William Patterson and his wife, Jane, with their children, Margaret (aged 2), and William (aged 1), boarded the ‘Agenoria’ at Plymouth to migrate to NSW, where, according to the Immigration Records (28-5-1849) Jane’s sister, Mary Stewart (not the Mary Stewart, daughter of Charles and Fanny, who married Robert Henry Lack), was already living. At time of embarkation, William’s parents (Thomas and Mary) were both living, and in residence on the Isle of Man; Jane’s parents (John and Jane) were both dead. The immigration documents spell their name as ‘Paterson’.
Arriving (25-5-1849) at Campbell’s Wharf, Sydney, they did not disembark immediately, as baby William was near death. He died on board (26-5-1849), and was buried at St James’ Church the following day (Church records (no 889, p.10) show that the burial service was conducted by W. H. Walsh).
Finally given approval to disembark (28-5-1849), the family took up residence in Kelso, where, on 28-9-1849, their baby William Stewart Patterson was born (375/2280), and baptised by Thomas Sharpe on November 12 of that year (a second baby, Archibald Stewart Patterson followed on 13-6-1851. Birth records show the father’s occupation at that time as ‘servant’, the mother’s name as ‘Jessie’, and their place of residence as ‘Fitzgerald Swamp’ (near Bathurst). This child was baptised (16-12-1851) by K.D. Smythe).
POTTINGER, Annie Georgina Keating
F5: POTTINGER, Lionel Henry B: 10-3-1834
M: 14-7-1869. Susan Kemp
D: after 1882, probably in Fiji.
Siblings: Eldred Pottinger, ‘Hero of Herat’ (half-brother); John Pottinger
Lionel Henry Pottinger.
Lionel Henry, born in Carrick Fergus, Antrim, was the son of Thomas Pottinger and his second wife, part-Indian Eliza Fulton (Thomas and his first wife, Charlotte Moore, were the parents of Major Eldred Pottinger, famed as the ‘Hero of Herat’; Thomas’s younger brother was Sir Henry Pottinger, signatory to the Treaty of Nanking and first governor of Hong Kong).
Lionel Henry served in the Indian Army in the Dragoons (his entry in the Bombay Service Army List IOR/L/MIL/ 12/75 1770-1852 states ‘Lionel Henry 28th NI res 22nd Aug 1855’), but resigned his commission and returned to Ireland, later following his cousin Frederick William (son of Sir Henry) to NSW (via New Zealand, where he worked for a time as a policeman on the gold fields), where he joined Sir Frederick as a trooper in the Southern districts, and took part in the hunt for Ben Hall’s gang (a photograph of him, taken in New Zealand, appears in two of Edgar Penzig’s books about the bushrangers of NSW, along with the description of him as “5 feet 8 inches tall….. grey eyes, fair complexion, and sandy hair”).
One of his exploits at this time was reported, on 2-10-1867, in three separate articles in two Sydney newspapers. First, in The Empire (at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/60845468), a letter (dated 13-1-1867) from A. S. Meares to the Colonial Secretary offers his services in mounting an expedition to capture the bushrangers Thomas, John and James Clarke, noting that “one of the persons who would be engaged with me would be Mr Lionel H Pottinger, who is also writing to you”. In the same publication (at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/60845461?) is the reply (1-3-1867) from the Colonial Secretary (Henry Parker), who accepts “…on behalf of the Government of New South Wales… the voluntary services of yourself, and of Lionel Henry Pottinger, and James Pye, forming a party under your direction, to proceed to the district of Braidwood in pursuit of the bushrangers infesting that part of the country: Thomas Clarke and his companions….lt is distinctly understood that the services of yourself and companions are offered to the Government without any remuneration, but that you are to be supplied with arms.”
Finally,The Sydney Morning Herald (at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/13157044) publishes the advisory letter (dated 4-3-1867) sent by Henry Halloran, Principal Under-secretary at the Colonial Secretary’s Office, to the Superintendent at Braidwood, Mr Orridge, “to inform you of the departure, this day, from Sydney, for Braidwood, by the way of the Clyde River, of a special party, consisting of Mr. Alexander Sparke Meares, Mr. Lionel Henry Pottinger, and Mr. James Pye, in pursuit of Clarke and his associates”.
The success of this mission notwithstanding, Lionel Henry’s career in the police force did not last long; like his cousin, he was, eventually, dismissed, but for quite-different reasons (in Lionel’s case, he had spoken in defence of sub-Inspector O’Neill,whose own dismissal had, Lionel felt, been unjust). His career abruptly curtailed, he moved north, marrying Susan Kemp in the Wesleyan Church in Tenterfield (on which occasion he gave his occupation as ‘gentleman’).
Subsequent news items involving Lionel Henry Pottinger show a less-heroic side to his nature: within five years, he was committed for trial at Grafton on two counts of stealing (3-11-1873): horse stealing, and stealing a gosling (NSW Govt Deposition Registers, page 008, Series NRS 849). He was, apparently, given a gaol term for these offences, as the NSW Govt record of gaol photographs (Photo 980 p 113, Series NRS 2138, Item 3/14031 Reel 5098) shows Lionel Henry Pottinger (birth year given as 1837) in Darlinghurst gaol on 9-3-1874. The Tuesday, 5-8-1873 edition of the Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser (Grafton, NSW: 1859 - 1889) notes, on page 2, a further legal proceeding involving Lionel: “Before Messrs W. Robertson, E. M. Ryan, and J. F. Wilcox, J. P.'s L. H. POTTINGER v PETERSEN A claim of £1, value of 16lbs butter. The same newspaper reported
(Tuesday, 10-3-1874) on the theft of the gosling in some detail, as Lionel Henry – possibly to show his contempt for the court proceedings – appeared without counsel and demanded to be tried by a jury. The report states:
“STEALING A GOSLING. Lionel Henry Pottinger was…. arraigned, for that he did, at South Grafton, on the 2nd of November last, steal one gosling, of the value of 4s. the property of William Gregory. The prisoner, who pleaded not guilty, was undefended. The Crown Prosecutor, who expressed regret at having to take up the time of the Court and jury over such a trumpery case, said it was a right allowed by the law, for a prisoner to elect to be tried by a jury, and Pottinger had claimed that right. The case was a very clear and simple one, and he would not occupy their time, but at once call constable Travers, who proved that about one o'clock, on Sunday morning, the 2nd of November …. he saw a horse tied up outside the fence with a swag on it, and ….found there was something alive in the swag; …..he saw Pottinger coming out of Mr. Gregory's stables with two horse collars, which he dropped when he saw witness; he then asked him if he owned the horse….. when receiving a reply in the affirmative, he demanded to know what he had alive in the swag, and insisted on opening it, when he found a young gosling, which he asked the prisoner, how he be came possessed of, when he said Tom, Gregory's groom, gave it to him, which he did not consider satisfactory, and at once arrested him on the charge of stealing it, when prisoner begged to be let off, stating he would give him £20 to drop it. Augustus Gregory….. identified the gosling, as the property of his father….. Thomas Engert proved that he never gave the gosling in question to Pottinger, who denied his guilt; but the jury without leaving the box found him guilty, a verdict in which his Honor concurred, stating that Constable Travers had given his evidence in a straitforward, manly way, and evidently was a witness of truth. There being another charge against the prisoner, he was remanded for sentence.” (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/61898410?)
The NSW Govt Deposition Registers record a further offence by Lionel Henry (1-3-1877), “obtaining money by false pretences, for which he was committed at Orange for trial at Bathurst (p 038 Series NRS 849)”. By this time, it seems that he and Susan had separated, and in a local news item (25-2-1876) she is referred to as ‘the widow Pottinger’ (see below).
Lionel Henry Pottinger moved south, stopping first in Melbourne, where a notice in The Argus (25-6-1880, at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/5973688) from the Attorney General announces an application from Lionel Henry (now ‘land agent’) and three colleagues (William Piper Monkhouse -- also ‘House and Land Agent’ – Charles Artlett the younger – ‘mercantile clerk ‘– and Thomas James Thompson – ‘stockbroker’-- “all of the city of Sydney”) to patent an invention “for the improvement of the illumination and heating powers of gas”, for which purpose “ (they) did, on the seventh day of May, deposit at the office of the registrar-general, in Melbourne, a specification or instrument in writing, under their hands and seals, particularly describing and ascertaining the nature of the said invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed; and that by reason of such deposit the said invention is protected and secured to them exclusively for the term of six calendar months …the said Lionel Henry Pottinger, William Piper Monkhouse, Charles Artlett the Younger, and Thomas James Thompson have given notice, in writing….of their intention to proceed with their application for letters patent for the said invention, and that I have appointed Monday, the nineteenth day of July next….at my said chambers, to hear and consider the said application and all objections thereto”. A similar notice appeared (10-6-1880) in the Hobarttown Gazette, (Tasmania), page 609 (at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/8985338?) noting that the application for patent had been filed, in Hobart on May 28 and would be decided on August 18.
A further news item in The Argus (8-9-1880, page 10, at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/5973288?) describes how the invention operates: “……. They have devised a peculiar contrivance to be attached to meters or placed in other suitable places in buildings where the gas supply will pass through it. In its passage through this apparatus, the gas undergoes a certain process which makes a considerable difference in its illuminating and heating power. Gas improved by the new process can be burned far more economically than that which is ordinarily used. In the experiments that were made yesterday, it was shown that with the very smallest burner that is now used a flame can be produced with the new gas fully equal to if not brighter than that given by the largest size burner (No. 6) with the ordinary gas, and that the latter burner would consume in 15 minutes 1ft. of gas, while the smaller burner (giving an equal light) would take fully 90 minutes to consume the same quantity of gas…. if two Argand burners be used, both giving a similar light, that burning the patent gas will consume less than one-fifth of the quantity that the other (burning the ordinary gas) will consume in a given time. It is further claimed that the heating power of the gas is materially increased by the new process, and experiments showed that the improved gas will boil a can of water in about four minutes, while the ordinary gas takes nearly twice the length of time; which goes far to bear out the inventor's claim, that under his new process the consumption of, say, a quarter of a foot of gas will yield twice as great a heat as double that quantity of ordinary gas. In 24 hours the cost of continuously burning the improved gas would, it is said, be about 5d., as against 1s.1d. for the ordinary gas. The cost of procuring and affixing the apparatus to the gas supply of a house is not very great, and it is said to merely require replenishing—an operation within the capacity of any household assistant, while requiring but a trifling expenditure from time to time. The inventors claim that the general introduction of their process will save consumers three-fourths of their gas bills, and that the saving in such edifices as the Exhibition-buildings, theatres, &c., would be enormous. The experiments conducted yesterday were made by Mr. Lionel Pottinger and two gentlemen who have come with him from Sydney, to introduce the invention in Melbourne, and they were witnessed by Messrs. Cosmo Newbery and Mr. J. Hicks, of the registrar-general's department, both of whom expressed a high opinion of the invention, and a desire to see it fairly tested by an experiment on a large scale in Melbourne.”
A further letter of endorsement (from ‘Inquirer’) was sent to the same newspaper on 15-9-1880: “Sir, In your issue of the 8th inst. I read a report of some gas experiments conducted by Mr. Lionel Pottinger and two other gentlemen, in presence of Messrs. Cosmo Newbery and J. Hicks, which appear to have been very successful, and a lasting debt of gratitude will be due to Mr. Pottinger if his invention can be made available by the general public, as it will put a stop to the gross imposition often practised, particularly in young companies.” (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/5980818?)
His success as an inventor notwithstanding, two years later, Lionel Henry was back in Carcoar, NSW; an entry in the NSW Police Gazette (1882, pp 224 and 295) records “Lionel Henry Pottinger, charged on warrant with embezzling 22 pounds, the money of Charles I Garland, has been arrested by Constable McKenna, Carcoar Police. Committed for trial at Bathurst sessions”; presumably, this was a separate offence to the similar one – also tried at Bathurst – for which Lionel Henry had been committed in 1877 (the very next entry in the Police Gazette, on page 224, refers to Arthur Henry Lack, “landlord of the National Hotel, summoned by sub-inspector Gawin, Orange Police, for allowing gambling in his licenced house, has been fined one pound and one pound three shillings costs. Paid.”)
Lionel Henry’s lifestyle eventually led him to further travels; he eloped with his wife’s tailoress (Selena Travis, from Ultimo), and is believed to have died in Fiji.
Lionel Henry’s most famous sibling is, of course, Major Eldred Pottinger, the ‘Hero of Herat’; his other (full) brother, John Pottinger, is the father of Lt General Brabazon Henry Pottinger, born in Bombay c 1840, who emigrated (24-11-1911) to New York (with his wife, Rosa Stewart Southey) on the ‘Lusitania’, the ship whose sinking, in 1915, brought the USA into World War I.
Major Eldred Pottinger, the ‘Hero of Herat’
Half-brother to Lionel Henry, Eldred was the son of Thomas Pottinger and his first wife, Charlotte Moore. He had a distinguished military career and is the subject of several biographies, including The Judgment of the Sword: The Tale of the Kabul Tragedy, and of the Part Played Therein by E. Pottinger (1913, Maud Diver); The Hero of Herat: Eldred Pottinger (1912, Maud Diver); and The Afghan Connection: The Extraordinary Adventures of Major Eldred Pottinger (1983, George Pottinger). Several chapters of Peter Hopkirk’s The Great Game and Sir John William Kaye’s History of the War in Afghanistan are devoted to his exploits, which resemble those of T.E. Lawrence in Arabia (Eldred Pottinger, himself, wrote a detailed report outlining these exploits, but the original, on loan, was destroyed in a fire, and only fragments remain).
Deputy to James Abbott in Hazara, Mr Vans Agnew of the Civil Service, said of Eldred, “All those that know him tell one story – their admiration is unqualified.” Sir Henry Lawrence, described by Karl Ernest Meyer (Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia) as the “hero-martyr of the siege of Lucknow”, wrote as follows: “India, fertile in heroes, has shown, since the days of Clive, no man of greater or earlier promise than Eldred Pottinger… at Bamian his genius appeared to rise…. he seems to have been unanimously elected leader and to have effected what thousands of troops could not have done.”
A monument -- visited on August 30, 2008, by Olivia and Emma Jarman (Generation 0) and Alan and Helen Jarman (Generation 1) -- to the memory of Eldred Pottinger stands in the south-west corner of St Thomas the Apostle Cathedral, the first English church in Mumbai (opened on Christmas Day, 1718). Its inscription reads: “This monument, erected by public subscription, to the memory of Major Eldred Pottinger, C.B., of the Bombay Regiment of Artillery, is placed in the Cathedral Church of Bombay, in token of the admiration and respect, in which his character as a soldier, and conduct as a man, are held by his friends in this presidency. Major Pottinger’s successful defence of Herat, his gallant bearing and judicious counsel, throughout the eventful period of the British reverses in Affghanistan, are recorded in the annals of his country, and need no elogium here; but the recollection of those services, must add to the regard universally felt, that one, whose early career gave such promise of future eminence and distinction, should have found a premature grave. Compelled by long continued exertion, anxiety and fatigue, in the discharge of his public duties, to seek a change of climate for the recovery of his health, Major Pottinger was returning to England via China, where he was attacked by a malignant fever at Hongkong, where he died on the 15th November 1843, aged 32 years.”
M5: KEMP, Susan B: c 1853
M: (i) 14-7-1869, Lionel Henry Pottinger, Tenterfield, NSW
(ii) 1889, Robert Graham Middleton
D: 25-3-1932, Chatswood.
No birth certificate exists for Susan Kemp, daughter of Charles Kemp and Susan. There is, in fact, a Susan Kemp born in the Tenterfield area in 1862 – the birth certificate lists her parents as ‘Charles Kemp’ and ‘Hannah’ – but, although some sites accept this as referring to the wife of Lionel Henry Pottinger, the dates make such an interpretation quite impossible. Her marriage to Lionel took place on 14-7-1869 (this is not disputed), and the news item mentioning her (quoted below) reports her as giving evidence in a police court in 1866. Her second marriage, and the birth of her last child in 1890, indicates a date of birth no earlier than 1853, which would make her 13 years old, at most, when her evidence was heard. From this data, it would seem that her date of birth can be reliably estimated as 1853-4.
In a Tenterfield Police Court case involving the disputed ownership of a cow and calf originally belonging to her parents (and branded ‘SK’), as reported in the Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser, 25-9-1866, page 2 (reprinted at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/61887203?searchTerm=&searchLimits=l-publictag=Susannah+Kemp+nee+Chandler), it is stated that “Mrs Kemp swore that her husband sold the cow to (the defendant) Leis… and certified to the receipt being in her husband’s hand-writing. Susan Kemp, the daughter, also gave similar testimony”.
Susan Kemp seems to have been mentioned – this time under her married name -- one further time in the Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser, on Tuesday 25-7-1876, at which time she had returned to the family home, having, it seems, separated from Lionel Henry (although whether the statement that she was, in fact, his widow was a deliberate misrepresentation of her status or a simple error of reporting cannot now be determined). The very-brief entry, reporting on a local flood, notes that “Mrs. Pottinger, a widow, had to take refuge in Mr. O'Neill's, her own house, with all its contents, being swept away, leaving her homeless and destitute” (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/61905810?).
The following information on the life of Susan Kemp is submitted by Michael Drew (31-12-2011, at http://genforum.genealogy.com/pottinger/messages/212.html):
“Lionel Henry Pottinger's wife, Susan Kemp, had 6 children, probably to three different men, spread over 21 years. She was married to Lionel first and had …. four children ….. between 1869 and 1873. Then she had an illegitimate child, Clarence Deane Pottinger in 1880, no father listed. Lionel is still alive (applying for patents in Victoria and Tasmania). In 1889, she married again, to Scotsman Robert Graham Middleton. They had one child in 1890 - Archibald Graham McKinnon Middleton”.
The death, in South Grafton, of Susan’s sister, Ruth Avery (26-9-1831 - 26-9-1871), is reported on the Toomey and Jackson Family History website (http://www.ezitree.com.au/html/IND00001/F00001850.htm); in this entry, her mother’s maiden name (‘Chantler’) is spelled ‘Chandler’.
F5: STEWART, Charles B:
M: Fanny Williams
M5: WILLIAMS, Fanny B:
M: Charles Stewart
F5: TRATHEN, Benjamin B:
M: Mary Dawes, Dawe or Dow
Comments: Arrived in Victoria circa 1846. Possibly came from Nelson,
New Zealand: a Benjamin Trathen, husband of Mary Dawe, is referred to
(on soc.genealogy.australia+nz, 6-2-1998) as having ‘settled’ there after
leaving the UK. A Benjamin Trathen, son of James Trathen and Eliza
Unknown, is recorded as having died in 1886.
M5: DAWES (DAWE, DOW) Mary B:
M: (i) Benjamin Trathen
(ii) Edward Miners
Comments: a ‘Mary Miners’ daughter of Richard and Ann, died at
Braidwood in 1874.
BURROWS (BURRACE), Lydia
CHANTLER (CHANDLER), Susan
JARMAN, Henry (Henery)
WILLMOTT, Hannah (Anna)
F6: CORRIGAN, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Corrigan
F6: DALY, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Daly
DAWES (DAWE, DOWE), Mary
F6: DAWES, Unknown B:
Comments: possibly ‘Richard’
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Dawes
Comments: possibly ‘Ann’
F6: EGAN, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Egan
F6: JARMAN, Henry (Henery) B: c 1802 (no birth or christening record; Steeple Morden)
M: 1832, Lydia Burrows (Burrace, Burrage).
D: 1847 (buried 25-7-1847, Steeple Morden)
Jarman, Henry (Henery)
The following information on Henry (Henery) Jarman is extracted from the 1841 census of Steeple Morden:
“Occupation: Agricultural labourer. Born in County: yes. Children listed: David, 8; John, 7; George, 5; James, 3; Thomas, 2 months. (Folio 3B HO 107/63/22).”
M6: BURROWS (BURRACE), Lydia B: 1809 (christened 15-1-1809, Great Chishall, Essex)
M: (i) 1832, Henry (Henery) Jarman
(ii) 26-11-1864, Thomas Betts
D: 1900, Chelsea
Lydia Burrows (Burrace, Burrage)
The Banns of marriage read at Steeple Morden (15-1-1832) list Lydia as ‘Lydia Burrace’ of Little Chissell (sic).
The 1841 Census of Steeple Morden notes that Lydia was not born in the county. Further information, extracted from the 1851 Census of Steeple Morden, states: Marital status: widow. Occupation: pauper. Where born: Essex, Chishall (Chissle) Great. Children listed: George, age 15, agricultural labourer; James, age 13, agricultural labourer; Thomas, age 10, agricultural labourer; Susan, age 4, scholar. P.R.O. Ref. no. HO 107/1707.
After the death of her second husband, Lydia moved to London, and lived with her daughter, Susan, until her death in Chelsea (1900).
F6: KEMP, Charles B:
M: Susan Chantler (Chandler)
Compiling a biography of Charles Kemp, father of Susan, is made more-complicated by the multiple occurrences of the name: another Charles Kemp -- “a very familiar figure in the community” -- living around the same time, and around the same area (specifically, Glen Innes; 90 km from Tenterfield) is extensively-recorded (his detailed biography having been published, as an obituary, in three major Australian newspapers, on the occasion of his death in 1925, ‘within four months of ninety years of age’), and is easily confused with Susan Chantler’s husband (especially so because not one of the three newspaper reports mentions the Christian name of his wife, which – as an examination of other records reveals -- is ‘Sarah’). Nor is Charles Kemp, husband of Sarah, the only other person of that name in the records: between 1875 and 1925, a total of four ‘Charles Kemps’ are recorded as having died in the Clarence district (the other three being ‘son of Thomas C and Margaret’ (1875); ‘son of Henry and Mary’ (1882); and ‘son of Jabez and Catherine’ (1905).)
Given that Charles, husband of Sarah, is not ‘our’ Charles Kemp (the obituaries report that Sarah’s husband “is survived by the following sons and daughters: Mesdames Debenham (Kempsey), Barton (Glen Innes), Miss Agnes Kemp (Glen Innes), Messrs. James, Charles, Joseph (Glen Innes)” -- no mention of daughter Susan, who lived until 1932, nor of her sister, Ruth – then which of the remaining three belong in this genealogy? Neither Susan nor Ruth have NSW birth certificates; there are, however, birth certificates for two daughters of Charles Kemp and Susan -- Elizabeth (1847) and Agnes (1849) -- and death certificates for two sons: Caleb Kemp (1892) and Joseph Kemp (1899). Clearly, a Kemp family in the Tenterfield district with at least six children is readily shown, even with the lack of a marriage certificate for Charles and Susan. The incomplete records, however, make it impossible to establish whether Charles’s parents were Thomas C and Margaret, or Henry and Mary, or Jabez and Catherine…. or, indeed, a different set of parents altogether (there is, for instance, a Charles Kemp born to Charles Kemp and Mary Anglesey, in Queensland, in 1871).
My guess – with, however, no other ‘evidence’ than the expectation that a man named ‘Jabez’ might have grandchildren named ‘Caleb’ and ‘Ruth’, and the fact that Jabez had a sister name ‘Elizabeth’ (born 20-11-1782), a name repeated in Charles’s daughters – would see Charles’s birth details (from the Kemp family website, at http://www.kempfamilyhistory.com/getperson.php?personID=I43360&tree=adkemp) as: ‘15 March 1825, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire’ (this interpretation, according to the same website, would give Charles yet another daughter: ‘Hannah Smith Potterill, born Abt 1830, St Chesterfield, Essex…. Married 10 May 1851 Warwick, Queensland’; I can find no record of this marriage; however, a ‘Hannah Potterell’ is recorded in the Queensland Register of Births as wife of Charles Kemp, and mother of Sarah (born 1858), and also as mother of William (died in Queensland 1921). An ‘Anna (sic) Pottrell’, wife of Charles Kemp, is mother of Adelaide (born 1854); ‘Hannah Kemp’, nee ‘Potrell’ (sic), died 1902).
According to Kathy Geyer, 20-6-1999, at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/KEMP/1999-06/0930307910, Jabez Kemp was a son of “Richard Kemp born 1754, married 9 November 1778, in Hinxton Cambridge England, Ann Hills, born 1755, died April 1837, Hinxton, Cambridge, England. Richard died March 1833, Hinxton, Cambridge”; Jabez was the sixth child; his wife’s name is specified as Catherine Howard.
Further research into the ancestry of Charles Kemp, father of Susan, is desirable.
M6: CHANTLER (CHANDLER), Susan B:
M: Charles Kemp
D: possibly 1897, Grafton
Susan Chantler (Chandler)
Susan Chantler (or Chandler) is, traditionally, given by Kemp family researchers as the wife of Charles Kemp, even though there is no marriage in NSW registered for this couple. At least one site calls her ‘Hannah Unknown’, due tio a birth certificate for a Susan Kemp born in Tenterfield in 1862; however, this actually refers to a different, younger, Susan Kemp.
There is, however, mention – but not by Christian name -- of Charles Kemp’s wife (and daughter, Susan) in the local press of the time.The Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser, 30-8-1864, page 2 (at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/61894524?searchTerm=&searchLimits=l-publictag=Susan+Kemp) reports, apropos the inquest into the death in childbirth of Mary Niland: “…..during the night deceased complained of great pain…..witness then proceeded to Grafton for medical aid, and after dark called upon Dr. Balinfante, who declined to go as the roads were bad and it was dark; the Doctor would have had to cross the river at Grafton, and then go eight miles through the bush to his house; Dr. Belinfante referred witness to Dr. Smith; he saw Dr. Smith, who declined to go, as he had a similar case that required his attention; witness then went to Dr. Berini but could not find any one at home; failing to get a medical man, he tried to induce Mrs. Kemp, a midwife to go out but she also refused.”
The Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser, 25-9-1866, page 2 (reprinted at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/61887203?searchTerm=&searchLimits=l-publictag=Susannah+Kemp+nee+Chandler) reports the following item from the Tenterfield Police Court: “Detention of a Cow and Calf. Charles Leis was summoned before the Court…. for illegally taking possession of a cow and calf…. Messrs Davison and Penny, at Sheriff’s sale, conjointly bought some cattle, and amongst the number one red cow branded SK on rump… Leis swore he made a dray for Mrs Kemp, and he purchased the cow for 5 pounds 10s and for which he produced a receipt. Mrs Kemp swore that her husband sold the cow to Leis… and certified to the receipt being in her husband’s hand-writing. Susan Kemp, the daughter, also gave similar testimony… the Bench dismissed the case.”
A ‘Susan Kemp’ is recorded in the NSW register of deaths as dying, in Grafton, in 1897.
F6: LACK, Robert B: c 1775, Parish of Lynn, Norfolk, Middlesex, England.
Convicted: 1797, Sussex, UK. Arrival in NSW: 1801, ‘Canada 1’
M: (i) Unknown
(ii) 20-3-1826, Elizabeth Frasier, born Elizabeth Eggleton.
D: 12-4-1832, Campbelltown, NSW (Death Certificate no. V18321759
16/1832; no parents’ names entered on certificate).
Robert Lack enlisted (7-7-1795) in the British Army at Warley Camp (Essex), during the time it was under the command of Colonel Sir Charles Asgill (who, in 1782, had been chosen, through the drawing of lots, by George Washington as the token captured military leader for execution as a show of retaliation; he was, however, subsequently released by an act of Congress and returned to England).
Having been convicted of the crime of robbery (from the Norfolk Military), Robert Lack was discharged (27-5-1797), and sentenced (August, 1797, at Sussex Assizes) to transportation for seven years. His ship, the ‘Canada 1’, (393 tons, built at Shields in 1800), sailed (under the command of Captain William Wilkinson), possibly on its maiden voyage, from Spithead, England on June 21, 1801, in company with two other transport ships (the ‘Minorca’ and the ‘Nile’), eventually arriving, after 176 days at sea, in Port Jackson (by way of Rio) on December 14 of that year. (‘Pastfinders.net’ holds an indictment file on Robert lack’s offence, including names of his co-accused: ref. nos UC0053; UC4005; UC4007. Website: http://www.pastfinders.net/unclaimedconvictsl.htm)
A considerable amount of documentation exists to allow researchers to trace Robert Lack’s subsequent history in his new home, which, it seems, he recognised as offering him a ‘second chance’: the granting of his Certificate of Emancipation (1-2-1811); his joining the Loyal Sydney Volunteers under Governor Bligh; his acquisition of several parcels of land in the greater Sydney area, and employment of newly-arrived convicts on these properties (NSW Govt Records of CsreLand, Item 2/7802, Reel 1150, date 1830 and 1831); his rise to respected citizen and employee of Governor Lachlan Macquarie; and his death in Campbelltown (1834), where he is listed in the Pioneers’ Register (there was, possibly, one further incidence of theft , during the very early years of his settlement in the new colony: a news report in the Sydney Gazette (at http://ndpbeta.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/page/5963?zoomLevel=1) records (19-8-1804) the arrest and punishment, for theft of corn from a boat, of “five men employed in a government boat”, one of whom is named Robert Lack).
At first entrusted by Lachlan Macquarie with keeping “in good perfect Substantial and proper repair” the road from “the Toll Gate Opposite the Factory in Parramatta to the Howes Bridge Windsor”, for which he was paid in rum (a contract -- dated 28-2-1815, signed with an ‘X’ by Robert Lack, and witnessed by four government officials, including D’Arcy Wentworth -- and authorisations of payment -- dated 2-6-1815, 4-9-1815, and 16-4-1816, and signed by ‘L.M. His Excellency, Governor Macquarie’-- still survive), he subsequently became an employer of convicts, for which service he was granted additional land, as is evidenced by a surviving letter (29-11-1825) from Robert Lack to Surveyor-General John Oxley requesting “one such quantity of Land as I may be entitled to” in return for maintaining convicts “free of expense to the Crown” (researcher Shirley White mentions a grant “of 60 acres at ‘Botany Bay’, later Peakhurst”; the 1822 Muster records William Eggleton (Generation 7) as being an employee of Robert Lack in Liverpool; he also employed William Thompson on this site, and William Dyson on still more land, in Campbelltown, of which Shirley White notes that “he must have bought because he didn’t receive it in the form of a grant” ).
Robert’s various occupations are listed as baker, farmer, and candlemaker (The Economic History of Campbelltown records that, in partnership with Paul Huon, Robert Lack had a candle factory in Airds in 1831, the year before his death). He eventually settled on his land in Campbelltown, marrying (20-3-1826, at St Peter’s Church of England, Campbelltown) his housekeeper, Elizabeth (widow of John Frasier, and daughter of his employee, William Eggleton, who settled in the area around the same time). Researcher Lesley Uebel (16-8-2003, at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/AUS-PT-JACKSON-CONVICTS/2003-08/1061025004) records this as Robert’s second marriage, although with no mention of, or evidence for, an earlier union; she also notes, with regard to a land grant to Robert, “he was granted 50 acres at Botany Bay by Foveaux in 1809,which had to be surrendered but was re-granted by Macquarie in 1810.”
After the birth of four children (the youngest of whom, Elizabeth Mary, lived until 1918, dying in Canterbury), Robert died (12-4-1832) and was buried in the original part of St Peter’s Church cemetery (exact position no longer identifiable). According to Shirley White, “in 1834, in the Monitor paper, Robert’s property….. was put on the market for auction. For some reason the property remained in the hands of the family because the children finished up with same. It is probable that Robert held other property not mentioned in Auction, as acreage at ‘Botany Bay’, and perhaps that was sold to satisfy the need” (Lesley Uebel also mentions this grant of “50 acres at Botany Bay by Foveaux in 1809, which had to be surrendered but was re-granted by Macquarie in 1810”).
While indications are that he provided well for his wife and children, Elizabeth appears to have badly mismanaged both the family finances and its reputation after Robert’s death; a report (7-1-1833) on “the circumstances stated by the executor of the late Robert Lack” (Colonial Secretary’s Files 1833/328) denounces her as “since her husband’s death…. a woman of bad character”; later reports on her murder by her third husband show her and her daughters as living in a one-room shack close by the main roadway to Sydney, her occupation after Robert’s death being described as ‘shopkeeper’.
Two newspaper reports concerning the disposition of the propert of Robert Lack following his death are on-line:
(i) at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/12846075, from The Sydney Herald, 14-1-1833: “NOTICE. PROBATE of the last Will and Testament of ROBERT LACK, late of Campbell Town, deceased, having been granted to Thomas Rose and others, the Executors; all persons having claims on the said Estate are requested to present the same to Mr. THOMAS ROSE, one of the Executors, for liquidation; and all persons indebted to the said Estate are required to pay the same to him. Appn, Jan. 1, 1833.”
(ii) at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2216421, from The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, l7th June, 1834: “SALE OF LAND. At Eleven o'Clock of Friday the 10th Day of October next, the Collector of Internal Revenue will put up to AUCTION, at the Police Office, Sydney, the undermentioned PORTIONS OF LAND, on conditions authorised by Government: …No. 624. By Jemia Jenkins, gentlewoman, Eaglevale, Campbelltown, to 100 acres, promised to Robert Lack, now forming part of memorialist's estate of Eaglevale, county of Cumberland.”
The 1788-1820 Pioneer Association Inc. has constructed a web page for Robert Lack, at http://www.the1788-1820pioneerassociation.org.au/Robert%20Lack.html
M6: EGGLETON, Elizabeth B: 18-2-1796, Sydney, NSW (baptised 5-3-1796).
M: (i) 4-11-1811, John Frasier (Frazier), St Phillips,
Sydney (died by drowning, 12-2-1823).
(ii) 20-3-1826, Robert Lack, St Peter’s, Campbelltown.
(iii) 25-8-1834, James Richardson, Sydney
Just three years old when her mother died, Elizabeth (from family anecdotes, usually called ‘Betsy’) Eggleton married for the first time at age 15, to John Frasier, or Frazier (born 18-2-1789), son of convicts William Frazier and Eleanor (Ellen) Redchester. John Frasier drowned (12-2-1823) at Concord (researcher Shirley White cites a document which describes his death as being the result of “bathing in a river while in a hot sweat”) after eleven years of, apparently, turbulent marriage (in an entry in the Sydney Gazette (1813), John disclaims further responsibility for debts incurred by his wife; the next year, the 1814 muster refers to her as living, not with her husband, but with her father, William Eggleton, and her brother, William, in the Windsor area).
Two sons – John, baptised 1-11-1820, and Daniel, born 1823 – are recorded for the marriage; while the Baptismal record of John records his mother as ‘Elizabeth Frazier’, researcher Shirley White records that the actual mother of both boys was “Elizabeth McGrath nee Sommerville, also born in the colony… Mrs McGrath cohabitated with John Frazier while her husband, Michael McGrath was serving a Colonial Sentence at Maitland. After the deaths of Michael and John she then married James Ward….. it seems that Elizabeth (Eggleton) refused to live with John Frazier, retained her maiden name, and continued to live with her father and brother”.
Certainly, there is no indication that Elizabeth had any involvement in rearing the two Frazier boys, still infants at the time of their father’s untimely death (by which time Elizabeth, still a young woman of only twenty-six, was already involved with her second husband; by 1822 Elizabeth and her father, William Eggleton, are listed as residing on the property of Robert Lack ‘near Liverpool’. Elizabeth is officially listed, at this time, as ‘housekeeper’ to Robert Lack; the two would marry (20-3-1826) when their son, Robert, was already two years old).
Robert Lack appears to have been upwardly mobile, socially, in the new colony, and on his early death (12-4-1832) had provided well for his family, by this time numbering one son and three daughters. Elizabeth, however, did not fare well after Robert’s death (although Shirley White points out, in defence of ‘Betsy’, that she “was quite capable of conducting her deceased husband’s affairs as she is recorded as having supplied grain to Government stores and also applying to open another store – one hesitates to say a liquor store!”). There were at least two unsuccessful attempts at a third marriage, which she sought “as a considerable acquisition to her in her present occupation” (as shopkeeper), and for which she was obliged to seek approval from the executors of her husband’s estate; one of these liaisons -- to Thomas Phillips, holder of a Ticket of Exemption -- resulted in her being branded (by the local police officer) ‘a woman of bad character’ whose involvement with the ‘otherwise-good’ Thomas was terminated by the strategy of re-locating him to a ‘remote’ (in actuality, the Hunter) district (Colonial Secretary’s File 1833/328, dated 7-1-1833).
Elizabeth eventually succeeded in marrying (25-8-1834, in Sydney, “in the Presbyterian rites”, a decision which, according to Shirley White, led a furious Rev. Thomas Reddall to vent “his feelings in writing to the authorities…. because they had married out of the parish and out of their religion”) the sexton of St Peter’s Church (Campbelltown), James Richardson. Richardson was an ex-convict who had served his sentence working for Rev. Reddall and, at the time of the marriage, was employed by John Haydon, of ‘Sugarloaf’ (husband of Elizabeth’s niece, Mary). The marriage was a troubled one, James’s attentions to the two daughters (Sarah Sophia and Elizabeth Mary) still living at home being a main cause of the conflict. Elizabeth Mary was removed by intercession of Thomas Reddall, who located for her a position as a domestic in Sydney; a problem still existing between Richardson and Sarah Sophia (by this time the mother of an infant daughter, unnamed, whose father remains unrecorded), Elizabeth eventually ejected Richardson from their Campbelltown (Sydney Rd) home.
On January 20, 1849, Elizabeth – along with daughter Sarah and Sarah’s unnamed infant daughter (aged 10 months) -- was murdered in her home by her estranged husband, who, on the eve of his intended departure to Adelaide on a cattle drive, had returned to the cottage after a drinking bout. A fourth victim, Elizabeth’s four-year-old granddaughter, Sarah (born 1845), daughter of Robert and Ellen Lack (Generation 5), was left for dead, but survived with, apparently, serious head injuries (she never married, living for the remainder of her life with family members, notably her brother, Robert Henry (Harry) Lack, until her death (17-2-1924) at ‘The Cedars’ Private Hospital, Holden St, Ashfield).
James Richardson subsequently confessed to the crimes, pleading extreme provocation (his wife’s suspected infidelity, and the behaviour of the children toward him). He was tried in Central Criminal Court, in Sydney, in March 1849, found guilty, sentenced to death at Glebe (6-3-1849 -- see The Sydney Morning Herald, 7-3-1849), and executed April 7 (The Sydney Morning Herald, 26-4-1849).
Elizabeth Eggleton’s older sister, Sarah Eggleton, and her ‘alter-egos’ (Sarah Eglinton and Sarah Pearson).
(This is a revised and corrected version of a document submitted in 2007 to the
Fellowship of First Fleeters, Sydney)
Sarah Eggleton (Ref: NSW BDM No.V180242 4) – first-born child of William Eggleton and Mary Dickenson, and elder sister of Elizabeth Eggleton (Generation 6) – is not a direct antecedent in this genealogy; she has, however, been the subject of such a volume of research by other family historians that, in researching Elizabeth, it became impossible not to become involved in the popularly-accepted history of her elder sister, as pieced together by previous researchers into the Eggleton line. In current interpretations of the data, Sarah (through her alleged ‘marriage’ to Thomas Pearson – an already-married (in England) convict who had arrived on the ‘Ganges’ in 1797 -- and the supposed first-born daughter of this union, Rosetta Pearson) is the source of a considerable number of families claiming Eggleton antecedents: the Fifield, Kemp, Martin, Connolly, Costello, Dalley, Campbell, Fairley, Hughes, Wooton, Morris, Mules, White, and Jacob lines, to name just some I have encountered. All have researched Sarah Eggleton, and all have claimed her (and, it follows, first-fleeters William and Mary) as their ancestor, based on an over-optimistic interpretation of the facts which, ultimately, fails to stand up to even cursory examination.
The universally-accepted theory posits a single Sarah who was, at different stages of her life, Sarah Eggleton, Sarah Pearson, Sarah Solomon, and (at least in a ‘de facto’ sense) Sarah Summers. Conceived, born and baptised in the colony in 1788 (even though she later, unaccountably, claimed to have come free on the ‘Ganges’ in 1797), she had her first baby at age 12 to a man some 22 years her senior and who was already married (to another Sarah, whom he had, it is assumed, left in England upon being transported, and to whom he may have returned, abandoning his Australian Sarah and their baby, Rosetta), saw her daughter married, at age 19, in 1819, when she herself was only 30 years old, and was eventually (in her forties) romantically linked with a farmer some four years her junior. A very busy lady indeed! Yet, upon her death in 1842, no one could be found to organise or attend her funeral.
This same scenario sees one (and one only) Thomas Pearson, husband of Sarah Pearson, who, having been convicted in London and sent to the ‘Ganges’ in 1796, arrived in New South Wales in 1797 (at which time his supposed bride-to-be, Sarah Eggleton, was a child of eight), bigamously married and impregnated a girl of eleven or twelve, falsely claimed to have come free on the convict ship in which he was transported, and either returned to England (possibly to bring his first wife back to the colony with him) or stayed on to be admitted to a benevolent asylum, during which period his second wife left him to marry (and have a son by) another man, of whom she later – unaccountably -- described herself as an employed servant.
This reconstruction of the life of Sarah Eggleton and Thomas Pearson has, it seems, always been regarded as problematic; several early researchers have expressed some doubt about its veracity. A hand-written, undated, and unsigned report, written under the letterhead of the Fellowship of First Fleeters -- having evaluated the Family Record by Rosetta Pearson-descendant Robert Hodges, entries in Dr Craig James Smee’s Pioneer Register, and the research of Shirley White and Yvonne Browning -- concedes that the generally-accepted interpretation is “unlikely”, concluding, with regard to ‘the Sarah who came with Thomas’ (i.e., his English wife) that
“I don’t think these had anything to do with the other family”.
Further, the same author, citing Yvonne Browning, notes that
“she admits to a lack of knowledge or any proof in almost every paragraph”.
Eggleton descendant Helen Paternoster has a detailed (but without authorship) eleven-page treatise on descendants of William and Mary Eggleton which states:
“there seems to be a great deal of mix-up and confusion with the life of Sarah Eggleton…..I have put Sarah Eggleton in my ’too-hard basket’ for now”.
Yet, for want of a more-convincing analysis, both the above researchers – and, it seems, just about everyone else -- continue to concede that Sarah Eggleton must, somehow, have married Thomas Pearson, and that Rosetta Pearson was, in fact, their first-born daughter (born either in 1800, 1801, 1802, or 1807, depending on which report you read); the genealogical lines are then constructed with this relationship treated as fact, and -- as a consequence -- the line to William and Mary Eggleton decisively, if uncomfortably, established.
However, when one goes back to the sources, and examines, not what someone else has already written, but what is actually there in the records, one finds that there is only one primary source and one secondary source that in any way links Sarah Eggleton with Thomas Pearson. The primary source is the 1823/4/5 muster, which lists the wife of Thomas Pearson as Sarah Eggleton, who came free to NSW on the ‘Ganges’ in 1797 (the ship that also brought Thomas Pearson as a convict). The secondary source is a typed death certificate, based on information provided after the event by third parties, for Rosetta Pearson (date of death 11-1-1866), which states that she was born in Parramatta and lived for 68 years in NSW, having married Edward Devine at age 19 (this marriage took place on 18-8-1819), and gives as her parents the names Sarah Eggleton and Thomas Pearson.
These two entries have to be wrong, whichever way you look at them; we know that Sarah Eggleton did not come on the ‘Ganges’ in 1797, or at any other time; her parents having been married in Sydney on February 17, 1788, Sarah was born in the colony very late that same year (and baptised on 25-12-1788). When the ‘Ganges’ arrived in Sydney, she was a child of eight. If Rosetta Pearson lived for 68 years in NSW, dying in 1866, her date of birth must have been around 1798; and her age at marriage, instead of 19, would have been around 21 (with her ‘mother’, Sarah, 30 years old at the date of this marriage, a mere nine years her senior).
While researchers seem willing to overlook discrepancies in the dates and the factual information in those two records, no one seems willing to consider that the errors may, in fact, stem from misspelling of the names rather than from misdating; the assumption has been that those two occurrences of the spelling ‘Sarah Eggleton’ must, by themselves, prove the case, and all the difficulties emanating from these must be consigned – to again quote Helen Paternoster’s offering – to the “too-hard basket”.
Yet spelling inconsistencies abound in all family research, and the Eggleton line seems to have more than its share: for Sarah, wife of Thomas Pearson, as well as these two instances of ‘Eggleton’, I have found, in primary sources, six for ‘Eglinton’ and one for ‘Eglenton’ (Shirley White’s account adds yet another variation: ‘Eglington’). In the Eggleton family, the spellings ‘Eagleton’ and ‘Egelton’ are used, and ‘Dickenson’ occurs as ‘Dickison’. ‘Pearson’ is written as both ‘Pierson’ and ‘Peirson’; ‘Devine’ is, on at least one occasion, spelt ‘Divine’. It is clear that the spelling of proper names is consistent only for its inconsistency; two cases of ‘Eggleton’ when another spelling was intended is, surely, not too far-fetched to accept.
My own explanation for the saga of Sarah Eggleton and Thomas Pearson is grounded in the conviction that we are dealing with, not one, but three distinct Sarahs: Sarah Eggleton (born in the colony in 1788); Sarah Eglinton (born in England), who married, firstly, Thomas Peirson (emigrating, shortly afterwards, to New South Wales as a free settler on the ship in which her husband was incarcerated) and, secondly, Samuel Solomon; and Sarah Pearson (born in England), daughter of Thomas Peirson and Sarah Eglinton, who, having accompanied her mother and elder brother on that same ship, eventually married her brother’s friend, becoming Sarah Summers. This theory posits not one, but two Thomas Pearsons: the first, originally spelled Peirson (born in England), was transported to Australia on the ‘Ganges’; the second, Thomas Pearson, was his son, born in England and a free passenger on that same ship (with his mother, Sarah Eglinton and his younger sister, Sarah Pearson).
In my interpretation of the facts, Sarah Eggleton never married, or had any kind of relationship with, Thomas Peirson/Pearson. She never gave birth to Rosetta Pearson. In fact, she didn’t do anything (at least, in the primary sources) after she was baptised on December 25, 1788. For all we know about her, she could have died the same day! Her ‘biography’ has been hopelessly intertwined with that of the two English Sarahs (Sarah Eglinton, born London c 1772; and Sarah Pearson, born in London at the end of 1795 or the beginning of 1796), both of whom – along with the infant Thomas Pearson, Jr -- arrived in Sydney as free settlers in 1797. The elder Sarah subsequently had at least four more children – ‘Rosetta’ (born, perhaps with a different Christian name, within about two years of their arrival in the colony), John (who died at age 17 on 6-6-1817), Elizabeth (born 1805) -- all fathered by Thomas Pearson -- and Samuel, who died at ten years old (in 1820) and was fathered by Samuel Solomon. Her daughter, the younger Sarah, worked as a servant to Samuel Solomon from her early teens (around 1808) up to at least 1822, following which she married her brother Thomas’s long-time friend, Thomas Summers, and leased (around 1831) a farm in Richmond from her sister, Elizabeth (married to James Hill), subsequently employing their brother, Thomas, to farm there. These facts can easily be gleaned from the original sources without ever needing to involve Sarah Eggleton.
I wish I could say that I can “dot all the ‘i’s and cross all the ‘t’s” in this reading of the facts, by providing original documents to prove every point. That, alas, cannot be done. There is, for a start, no surviving list of the free passengers who arrived on the ‘Ganges’ on 2-6-1797; all we have remaining is the list of male convicts. The sceptic may, therefore, dismiss all my conclusions solely on this one point-of-order. However, it is easily proved that there were, indeed, free settlers who arrived on the ‘Ganges’ in 1797; the 1811 census contains no fewer than ten entries of people (mainly women) identifying themselves as having come free on that same voyage, and a cross-check of their surnames with the names of the male convicts on the ship shows that they were, in the main, wives and children of the men being transported (one of which, of course, was Thomas Peirson, a fact which is not in dispute; there has been mention of a Thomas Pearce arriving in 1802 on the ‘Coromandel’, but he is not generally considered, with any seriousness, as a partner for Sarah Eggleton).
It is undisputed that Thomas Peirson/Pearson, having been arrested and tried in London at age 30, was sent to the ‘Ganges’ (17-2-1796). Helen Paternoster’s research mentions the existence of his wife, Sarah, who
“stayed in England. If this be the case, Thomas Pearson now has two wives named Sarah. Various records…. confuse the matter more by showing that both Sarah Pearsons (i.e. the original wife from England and Sarah Eggleton) as having the same children. It is not known for certain whether 1st wife Sarah perhaps followed Thomas Pearson in the years following his arrival”.
(Peter J Moore’s research, faced with the paucity of actual evidence for Sarah Eggleton’s marriage to Thomas Pearson, and the sudden appearance on the scene of Sarah Pearson, decides to have a bet each way, stating that “Thomas didn’t marry Sarah (Eggleton), and when he obtained his freedom he went back to England and brought his wife and child to Australia”. He may be referring to a departure from Sydney – announced in the Sydney Gazette for the ship, ‘Harrington’ in December, 1806, and cited by Shirley White – of, supposedly, a Thomas Pearson; however, a check of the original source reveals this to be neither ‘Peirson’ nor ‘Pearson’, but ‘Pearce’.)
The coincidence of two wives with the same first name is not, by itself, too much for the mind to encompass; however, an examination of four original documents (a set of two handwritten cards recording either a marriage or an impending marriage at St Andrews Church, Holborn, (about four kilometres from Shoreditch, London), dated 1792, (see ancestrylibrary.com), and entries in two Church registers, dated 2-6-1792 (Source citation: Guildhall, St Andrew Holborn, Register of Marriages by Banns, 1787-1793 p. 69/AND2/A/01/Ms6670/7) and 13-4-1783 (St Leonard Shoreditch, London, Hackney; source citation: Guildhall, St Leonard Shoreditch, Register of marriages May 1791-June 1793, p. 91/LEN/A/01/Ms7498/17), and a baptismal certificate (11-1-1796) for St Andrews Church, does, indeed, take the coincidence of Thomas as the husband of both Sarahs to a new level.
The marriage announced is for Thomas Peirson (sic) and Sarah Eglinton, and the 1796 baptism is for their first daughter, Sarah Pearson. Young Sarah is, it seems, the couple’s second child; records of the Church of Latter Day Saints show two children of Thomas Pearson and Sarah Eglinton, the elder being son Thomas, born in London ‘about 1794’ (an indecisive entry which may actually have been arrived at by working backwards from the 1828 census of NSW, in which Thomas Pearson, age 34, is recorded as having come free, on the ‘Ganges’, and living with Thomas Summers at Evan). LDS also documents a marriage – 13-4-1793, at St Leonard’s Church, Shoreditch, London -- between Thomas Peirson (sic) and Sarah Eglinton, an entry repeated in Hawkesbury Pioneers Register, Vol 2; while it is possible that the June, 1792, Holborn record and card refers to a different couple in the same neighbourhood, the addition of the capital letter ‘B’ next to the Holborn imprint on both cards suggests that the Holborn records may have been in the nature of published banns, as the title of the Holborn register indicates.
The existence of a second, younger Thomas Pearson clears up several inconsistencies in the NSW records, in which Thomas Pearson is listed both as a convict and a free man on the ‘Ganges’, and as a labourer, inmate of a benevolent asylum, and lessee of his daughter’s property: quite a biography, and surely more likely if shared between two.
The 1828 census is not the only extant record of the younger Thomas Pearson’s free status: he is also listed in the 1814 muster (at which time he would have been about 19), employed as a labourer. In turn, his sister, Sarah Pearson, positively attests to her own status as a free settler (via the ‘Ganges’) in the muster of 1822, in which she is listed as a ‘servant’ to Samuel Solomon (who, by the time of the 1828 census, at age 69, is, himself, employed by Sarah’s sister, Elizabeth Hill, as a labourer; three years later, Elizabeth would install Sarah and her husband on a farm and employ their brother, Thomas).
The one remaining person who must attest to her arrival on the ‘Ganges’ as a free settler is, naturally, Sarah Eglinton (who, since her marriage, is actually ‘Sarah Pearson’; however, she seems to have used the surname ‘Eglinton’ in several records between her arrival in NSW and her death, at age 70, on 22-5-1842). And, of course, Sarah Eglinton does so attest, in the 1823/4/5 muster, which shows her living with her daughter’s employer. However, the spelling mistake – the name is written as Eggleton – has resulted in this being attributed to the daughter of William and Mary Eggleton, in spite of the fact that this must, logically, make the rest of the entry a fiction. No one seems to have questioned the improbability of Sarah Eggleton -- born in the colony and whose father was still living here at the time of the census – falsely claiming to have emigrated from England as a free settler (at age eight?). Prior to this illogical declaration, we had no information about Sarah Eggleton subsequent to her 1788 baptism; now, as a result of the acceptance of the entry which is almost-certainly a simple case of misspelling, previously-forgotten Sarah suddenly reappears in all the records as the wife of Thomas Pearson and Samuel Solomon, as the partner of Thomas Summers, and as the mother of Rosetta Pearson, John Eglenton, Thomas Pearson, Elizabeth Pearson, and Samuel Solomon, Jr.
In the case of – particularly -- Rosetta (and this first name becomes very significant), the date of her birth has been moved around to accommodate the awkward chronology necessitated by this scenario. Shirley White has her born “circa 1800 Parramatta claiming Thomas Pearson as father…. mother Sarah Eggleton was only twelve years at Sarah’s birth” (in fact, since Sarah was born in the last weeks of 1788, she would have been eleven years old for all but the last few weeks of 1800, making this already-unlikely scenario practically impossible). Peter J Moore amends the date to 1801 (a little less-improbable), Robert Hodges to 1802 (better still… in this case, Sarah would have been thirteen), and St Peters, Richmond: the Early People and Burials as late as 1807, which would be even more desirable (making Sarah eighteen at the time of her daughter’s birth) if it wasn’t patently impossible when set against the date of Rosetta’s marriage to Edward Devine (in the register, spelled ‘Divine’; according to Dr C. J. Smee, he was christened Edward Doyle, and was the son of first-fleeter Philip Devine and Ann Doyle), which is decisively dated – without, however, listing the names of either parent -- in the original St Peter’s Marriages Register (with the spelling ‘Peirson’ for Rosetta’s last name), at 18-8-1819, with Rev Henry Fulton performing the ceremony, seemingly oblivious to the fact that he was officiating at the marriage of a twelve, or even eleven-year-old (in addition, this later date of birth makes nonsense of Rosetta’s own statement of her age in the 1822 muster and of the statement in the Church register regarding her age at death, which, interestingly, agree with each other).
While Hodges’ date for Rosetta’s birth – 1802, making Sarah a mother at thirteen, and Rosetta a bride at 16 or 17 -- is an easy-to-accept compromise, the fact is that there remains not a shred of evidence to prove that Rosetta Pearson was actually born in 1802, in Parramatta or elsewhere. Rosetta – under that name -- was never registered in New South Wales, does not appear in the Mutch Index, and is not mentioned in the records of St John’s Church of England, the only church operating in Parramatta at the time. The two primary sources which give an indication of Rosetta’s age – the 1822 muster, which records her as aged 24, and the St Peter’s (Richmond) record of her burial (died 11-1-1866, buried 14-1-1866), at aged 68 – suggest a date of birth as early as 1797 or 1798, within about a year of the arrival of the ‘Ganges’… at which time her alleged ‘mother’, Sarah Eggleton, was no more than nine years old.
The choice – surely an unusual one for a member of the Eggleton family to give to a first daughter – of the name ‘Rosetta’ has long intrigued me. There are no other ‘Rosettas’ immediately before it – or, for that matter, at any time since -- in this family, which is, otherwise, particularly scrupulous in keeping to traditional names: several ‘Williams’ and ‘Elizabeths’, and some ‘Sarahs’. I wondered whether, perhaps, I could find the name ‘Rosetta’ in the church records of the Peirson/Pearson or Eglinton families back in England. At first, the search was fruitless; I searched both ‘Peirson’ (with its several spelling variations) and ‘Eglinton’ in the English records, without coming across even a single occurrence of the name. Desperate, I decided to identify (using Pallot’s Baptism Index for England, and Pallot’s Marriage Index for England -- both 1780-1837 -- plus available British census records) every ‘Rosetta’ in England over a seventy-year period, from 1780 to 1850. Suddenly, I had scores of ‘Rosetta’ baptisms, and literally hundreds of marriages (not so unexpected, as each ‘Rosetta’ marriage had at least two listings: under the surname of the groom as well as the bride). A perusal of these entries showed some remarkable trends: for baptisms, there were very few before 1800, and, comparatively few after 1830; however, for the thirty-year period in between those dates there was, unaccountably, a distinct surge in ‘Rosettas’. A comparable surge in ‘Rosetta’ marriages occurred between 1813 and about 1850, after which occurrences of the name, again, dwindled. Even more remarkable, the occurrences seemed strictly regionally-based: nearly all the ‘Rosettas’ were baptised, and married, in the Greater London area, the overwhelming majority in the same half-dozen churches in one relatively-small district: Holborn/St Pancras, the very district in which Thomas Peirson and Sarah Eglinton were married, and where their daughter, Sarah, was baptised.
Intrigued, I ‘tightened’ the time-frame of my inquiries, researching baptisms of ‘Rosetta’ from 1800 to 1830, and marriages from 1812 to 1852. There were 71 baptisms for ‘Rosetta’ in England in that thirty-year period, 46 of which were celebrated in just four London churches: St Martin-in-the-Fields (one), St Anne’s, Soho (ten), St Andrew’s, Holborn (twelve, all in the twelve-year period 1800-1811), and St Pancras (twenty-three). The whole of the rest of England accounted for just twenty-five baptisms of ‘Rosettas’ in thirty years.
I found, altogether, 357 entries for marriages (for a total of some 175 Rosettas), and this time Bethnal Green accounted for seven; Shoreditch (identified as the church where Thomas Peirson and Sarah Eglinton were married in 1793) for eight; St Andrew’s (Holborn), St Pancras, and St Anne’s (Soho) for ten each; St Marylebone for thirteen; and St Martin-in-the-Fields for no less than twenty-seven. I had already ascertained that Shoreditch and Holborn were neighbouring parishes; now, I cross-referenced ‘Holborn’ with the other names, and found that each of these churches is within a few kilometres of St Andrew’s, Holborn (and, therefore, from each other). ‘Rosetta’, it seems, was a preferred name-choice only in the district where Thomas Peirson and Sarah Eglinton were married, and only for the period from, roughly, five to thirty-five years after their marriage.
Clearly, all this was far more than mere coincidence. I knew I was ‘on to’ something, but couldn’t work out exactly what. Finally, I cross-referenced ‘Rosetta’ and ‘Holborn’, and, suddenly, all became clear.
The Rosetta Stone was discovered (at el-Rashid, by soldiers in Napoleon’s army) in 1799, shortly before Napoleon’s defeat by England. Under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801), the stone (together with other Egyptian antiquities uncovered by the French) was ceded to England, and brought to London for exhibition at the British Museum. And the British Museum is at Holborn. It is within easy walking distance of St Pancras, St Marylebone, Shoreditch, St Martin-in-the-Fields, and the other churches listed above.
It must have been quite a ‘coup’ for residents of the Holborn district – or those who originally came from the area -- to know that this famous antiquity (even today, arguably the most popular exhibit in the museum, invariably surrounded by a cluster of admirers still mesmerised by its significance; when I visited, in May, 2010, it was the most difficult exhibit to photograph, or even inspect, because of the crowds surrounding it) was to be housed right in their neighbourhood; they celebrated this in a perfectly normal way, in the naming of their daughters born around the time of the exhibition. If Thomas Pearson and Sarah Eglinton heard about it, from family back home, when their baby was born in the last two or three years of the 18th century, how natural for them to choose this name for their new daughter, as so many other people were doing in their old neighbourhood, or – more likely, I think, but still to be proved -- to have begun using this ‘special’ name for their daughter around 1801, even if she had previously been given a different Christian name.
However, Mary Dickenson and William Eggleton came, not from Holborn, but from Southwark, on the other side of the Thames. How many ‘Rosettas’ could I find from that area in the same period? I found no recorded baptisms, and just three marriages, one – the 1835 Wheeler/Cole marriage – having been celebrated at St Saviour and St Mary Overie (‘over water’), local church for William and Mary; away from the Holborn district – even a mere two-and-a-half miles over the London Bridge -- the name ‘Rosetta’, it seems, never quite “caught on”. While this statistical information hardly constitutes proof of parentage, taken with all the other evidence it constitutes a compelling case for Rosetta Pearson to have a ‘Holborn connection’, and this, surely, is of significance in establishing her likely parentage.
For the supposed granddaughter of William and Mary Eggleton and the niece of Elizabeth and William Eggleton, Rosetta’s choice of names for her own children is, in a society which favoured continuity of Christian names across the generations, somewhat bizarre: there is (as one would expect) a Thomas and a Sarah, but her other children are Philip (named after Edward’s father, Philip Devine, who, like William Eggleton, arrived on the ‘Alexander’ on 26-1-1788), Rebecca, Matilda, Edward, and Joseph. Not one of these names had occurred up until that time in the colonial Eggleton family. Once again, not, by itself, proof of different parentage…. but also very suggestive. It is hard to believe that the researchers who have accepted Rosetta as the grandchild of William and Mary have not been, at least, somewhat suspicious of all these ‘non-Eggleton’ names for Rosetta’s children, especially given the presence of Rosetta’s alleged grandfather right there, in the colony, until Rosetta was around thirty years old. Four sons, and not one named after the still-living Eggleton patriarch?
Thomas Pearson Jr – born in London and subsequently attesting to his arrival on the ‘Ganges’ and free-man status – has also been the subject of some misrepresentation in order to make the facts fit. According to Shirley White, he was born 15-12-1802, and died at age 14, on “9-6-1817, buried at St Peter’s as an Eglington (sic)”. The Mutch index does, indeed, record a ‘Thomas’ born 15-12-1802; it is Thomas Pearce, whose mother is recorded as ‘Reynolds’; a different family altogether, surely, even allowing for a spelling mistake as gross as ‘Pearce’ for ‘Peirson’. The death (6-6-1817, buried 9-6-1817) at St Peter’s, Richmond, was not of Thomas but of “John Eglenton, son of Thomas Pierce and Sarah Eglinton” (again, spelling by Rev Henry Fulton), and his age was given as 17 (making his date of birth prior to 6-6-1800 -- quite close to the likely birth date for his sister Rosetta, unless that name was given to her some time after her actual birth -- at which time Sarah Eggleton was not yet twelve). Note that, even though the entry abounds with spelling errors, there is nothing there to implicate Sarah Eggleton, but much indicating Sarah Eglinton.
Sarah Eggleton’s supposed third child is recorded as Elizabeth Pearson (according to the St Peter’s register, born 7-10-1805, baptised five years later on 14-10-1810); this record, however, shows her parents as ‘Thomas Peirson and Sarah Eglinton’, duplicating exactly the spelling for the Holborn and Shoreditch notices regarding the 1792/3 marriage and the 1796 baptism (Elizabeth eventually -- 21-8-1822 -- married James Hill at Christ Church, Castlereagh). Once again, there is nothing in the records to implicate Sarah Eggleton.
The fourth child assigned to Sarah Eggleton is identified only by his early death: Samuel, son of Samuel Solomon and Sarah Eglinton, on 17-1-1820, aged 10. According to Shirley White, “Samuel Solomon…. is buried at St Peter’s, Richmond, as an Eglington (sic)”; however, I can find no record of this. Shirley claims, further, that an entry in the St Peter’s register of marriages shows that Samuel Solomon and Sarah Eglington (sic) -- she does not, in this case, go so far as to suggest ‘Eggleton ’-- married shortly after this death, on 18-6-1820 (a marriage which was never registered); I was unable to find evidence of this, either in the records of St Peter’s or of those of the two neighbouring churches at Windsor and Castlereagh. Assuming that the marriage actually took place -- and, certainly, the citing by Shirley White of an exact date indicates she is relying on hard evidence and not mere hearsay -- it seems strange that the family researchers should accept the fact that, two years later, the 1822 census should record Sarah as ‘Pearson’ (not ‘Solomon’ or her usual ‘Eglinton’) and as employed as a servant to her own husband, with whom she had been living for some twelve years! It seems almost certain that this entry refers to Sarah Eglinton’s daughter, Sarah Pearson, who would have been, by that time, around 26 years old, and that, in 1822, she, like her mother, was dependent on Samuel Solomon (according to the 1822 muster, Thomas Pearson was, at that time, a patient in the Hawkesbury Benevolent Asylum). If, as has been suggested, Sarah Eglinton was co-habiting with Samuel Solomon from around 1808 – having his child in 1809 (at the very upper limit of her childbearing range, suggesting that it is possible that she is the step-mother, rather than the birth-mother, of Samuel Solomon) – it would seem hard to believe that Sarah Pearson – in 1808, just twelve years old – would be able to live anywhere else but with her mother and younger siblings, remaining there for the birth – and eventual death, in 1820 – of her half-brother.
Researchers who continue to assert that Sarah Eggleton, Sarah Eglinton, and Sarah Pearson all refer to the same person credit the daughter of William Eggleton and Mary Dickenson with yet another romantic liaison, this time with Thomas Summers (born 1793), a farmer at Evan (Penrith). Summers, in fact, features in several primary sources in connection with the Pearsons (already mentioned is the entry in the 1828 census of NSW, recording that Thomas Pearson, aged 34, having come free on the ‘Ganges’, was living with Thomas Summers at Evan; since these two men were born in successive years, it is easy to envisage a long-term friendship and/or working partnership). A further source linking Summers with the Pearsons is the already-mentioned entry in Hawkesbury Pioneers Register, Vol 2: on 9-8-1831, James and Elizabeth Hill (Thomas’s sister) purchased ‘Smith Farm’, North Richmond, in the name of their eight-year-old son, William, and subsequently leased it for life to Sarah Pearson and Thomas Summers.
While it may be argued that, in this case, ‘Sarah Pearson’ refers to Sarah Eglinton, now restored to her married name (which, however, should, if Shirley White’s report of the 1820 marriage is correct, have been ‘Solomon’), the likelihood is that it refers to her daughter, Sarah (sister of Elizabeth Hill and Thomas Pearson, Jr), who would have been just two years younger than Summers (whereas, at around sixty years of age, Sarah Eglinton would have been more than twenty years his senior, a somewhat-improbable situation for a domestic relationship), no longer a servant to her mother’s partner but now living, with her own partner, as a tenant on her sister and brother-in-law’s farm (where her step-father had already been employed for at least the previous three years, indicating that the girls’ mother, Sarah Eglinton/Solomon, may have taken up residence with the Hill family). In either case, there is no evidence to connect this partnership with Sarah Eggleton (who, in 1831, would have been 42, some four years older than Summers); in this instance, Sarah Eggleton – so often credited with events in the life of Sarah Eglinton – is clearly being confused with that woman’s daughter, the young Sarah).
There are no subsequent references to ‘Sarah Eglinton’; in the 1828 census, she is, once again, Sarah Pearson (aged 57), the name by which she is entered in the St Peter’s, Richmond, Burial Register (aged 70, on 22-5-1842, having died at Curryjong on May 19). This unique (in this register) entry has an annotation: “no service performed in consequence of the parties interested not having attended on either of two occasions appointed by the Clergyman” (Henry T Stiles). The age entered in this record makes this most unlikely to be a reference to either the 1796-born Sarah Pearson -- partner of Thomas Summers – who would have been forty-six, or to Sarah Eggleton, who would have been fifty-three, both unrealistic disparities (admittedly, less than that allowed by researcher Peter J Moore, who identifies the daughter of William and Mary Eggleton as the Sarah Eggleton who died, age 60, at Temora in 1886, without offering any explanation for a 97-year-old woman being mistaken for a woman of 60, and living alone in Temora, still using her maiden name, while the rest of her family were centred around Campbelltown, Bargo and Tumut).
There is, however, one further reference to Sarah Eggleton connecting her with the Pearson family. The Registration of Death (11-1-1866) for Rosetta Pearson lists her father as Thomas Pearson and her mother as Sarah Eggleton. This is a recent, typed, document, based on information provided after the event by third parties. It also mentions Rosetta’s place of birth as Parramatta, and her age at marriage as 19 (which, given the date of the arrival of the Rosetta Stone at Holborn, would seem a year too old, but, when set against her own testimony on the 1822 muster, would appear to be around two years too young; this, I feel, is another indication that ‘Rosetta’ may have been a name attached to the baby a year or two after she was born). A comparison of this secondary source with the primary source at St Peter’s, Richmond (Register of Burials, 14-1-1866), reveals one important difference from the later document: it identifies only the name of her father, Thomas.
With all the primary sources at our disposal, we can, I believe, construct a fairly full and accurate picture of the lives of Sarah Eglinton and Sarah Pearson (and, incidentally, of Thomas Pearson, Jr, who -- having been summarily “killed off” by Shirley White at age 14 -- has sometimes had to suffer events from his own life being credited to his father).
born London c 1772.
Married London (Holborn/Shoreditch area), 1792 or poss. 13-4-1793. Husband: Thomas Peirson.
First child: Thomas Pearson, born 1794, London.
Second child: Sarah Pearson, baptised January, 1796, St Andrew’s, Holborn (London).
Husband tried and convicted 1796, transported. Sarah and two children emigrated on same ship (‘Ganges’). Arrived Sydney Cove 2-6-1797. Permitted to reside with husband while he served out his remaining sentence.
Third child (Rosetta) born NSW between 1797 and 1800.
Fourth child (John) born before June, 1800.
Fifth child (Elizabeth) born 1805.
Cohabits with Samuel Solomon, from c 1808. Possible (unrecorded) marriage in 1820.
Sixth child (Samuel), father Samuel Solomon, born 1810 (died 1820).
On 1823/4/5 census uses name ‘Eglinton’, but is misspelled as ‘Eggleton’.
Resumed last name ‘Pearson’ c 1828.
Died 22-5-1842, age 70, at Richmond, using name ‘Pearson’.
Parents: Thomas Peirson (Pearson) and Sarah Eglinton.
Baptised January, 1796, Holborn, London.
Travelled on ‘Ganges’ with mother and brother (Thomas) to Sydney. Arrived 2-6-1797.
Lived with mother and Samuel Solomon from c 1808.
Listed in 1822 as ‘servant’ in home of Samuel Solomon.
Married friend/workmate of brother Thomas, Thomas Summers.
Leased (with Thomas Summers) farm belonging to sister Elizabeth Hill from 9-8-1831.
Employed brother Thomas to work on farm (‘Smith Farm’, North Richmond).
There is nothing in either of these biographies to even imply the existence of Sarah Eggleton. There is no real evidence of any contact between the Pearson family and William Eggleton and his descendants. On the death of Sarah Eglinton, no one from the Eggleton family (living, in the main, in not-too-distant Campbelltown) took any interest in organising or attending the funeral.
In short, while we have a logical and convincing biography for Sarah Eglinton and Sarah Pearson – with, it must be admitted, a few minor points unable to be verified – we have no information of any sort about the life of Sarah Eggleton, daughter of William Eggleton and Mary Dickenson, beyond the fact of her baptism – the last one performed in the colony in its first year of existence – on 25-12-1788.
MATTHEWS, Eleanor (Ellen)
F6: MATTHEWS, John B: 1793
M: 29-2-1823, St Luke’s, Liverpool (NSW), Faith Cooper
Comments: arrived (as convict, sentenced to transport for life) in Sydney 28/7/1814, on ‘Surrey’. Permission to marry Faith Hearn at Liverpool
NSW 2/4th Oct 1822 reel 6009 4/3506 p310.
M6: COOPER, Faith B: c 1802
M: (i) 1821, John Hearn (Hern). He died in 1822, aged 43
(ii) 29-2-1823, St Luke’s, Liverpool, John Matthews. Marriage
registration no.: V18233083 3B/1823
D: 19-3-1851, Prospect, NSW.
“Faith was one of three daughters of Robert Cooper and his wife Ellen. Robert was one of the 1/73 Regiment and they arrived in Sydney per ship Ann on the 27th February 1810. Faith's first child John was born in 1820 with no father named but he used the name Hearn. Faith married John Hearn in 1821 and had a daughter Jane Hearn with John in 1821. John died in 1822 and in 1823 Faith married John Matthews. Towards the end of the 20's John and Faith were having some difficulties caring for all their children and so Faith arranged for Jane and John the be placed in the Orphan School. When she and John were back on their feet she did get them out again.” (http://magni.webcity.com.au/~rnb47409/families/whalan.html)
F6: McNAMARA, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown McNamara
F6: PATTERSON, Thomas B:
M: Mary Unknown, Isle of Man
M6: UNKNOWN, Mary B:
M: Thomas Patterson
POTTINGER, Lionel Henry
F6: POTTINGER, Thomas B: 1783
` M: (i) Charlotte Moore (only daughter of James Hamilton Moore
(Irish, but spent most of his life in Copenhagen, died 1808) and
wife, Jane (died 1814); Charlotte was mother of Eldred Curwen
Pottinger, famed as the ‘Hero of Herat’.
(ii) 7-6-1814 (Calcutta) Eliza Fulton
Thomas Pottinger – described by his son, Thomas Jr, as “a man of such splendid talent and excellent sense (who is)… easily gulled by every fool or knave he comes across” (in a letter cited by George Pottinger, 1997, Sir Henry Pottinger, First Governor of Hong Kong; all quotes in this biographical entry come from this same work) -- was one of five sons sent by his father to India from Ireland, “to make their careers -- and often to end their lives”. He served with success in the British army in India (8th Light Dragoons) before returning to Ireland, where he lived in Kilbride House, County Clare; however, his “casual, irresponsible way of looking after his affairs” alienated him from his younger brother-- the more-successful Henry, who thought him “feckless” (Thomas had asked Henry to ‘bankroll’ a get-rich scheme, which request Henry had emphatically rejected -- and from his sons, Eldred (soon to become famous as ‘the Hero of Herat’) and Thomas, Jr., both of whom actively tried to discourage him from proceeding with a scheme which “after dissipating his second wife’s dowry…. (would) recoup his finances in India” (the plan was for him to become “an agent for the Asphalt Association, which is some damned speculation for covering roads with Asphalt, etc.”, wrote Thomas to Eldred, who, in turn, wrote to his father pleading for him to abandon the idea: “I cannot see any advantages in your coming out to this country… to do so in a mercantile situation will… grieve me much….. as you have so often already done, I have not the least doubt you will throw up your appointment…… (I pray) that you will leave the pushing on in the world to your children and will yourself sit down quietly”). Their sister, Anne, who had gone to India in 1839, joined the chorus of disapproval (“I do hope that Papa will not ask Uncle Henry to do anything to serve him”), and Thomas reluctantly abandoned the scheme.
Thomas Pottinger’s second marriage (7-6-1814), to the eldest daughter of John Williamson Fulton, also sparked controversy: it was suggested in the will (written 4-7-1818) of Eliza’s aunt, Eliza Overend Fulton, of Lisburn, that Thomas had married Eliza (who must, at the time of the marriage, been in her mid-teens, since their son, Lionel Henry Pottinger, was born almost twenty years after the wedding) in order to restore the family fortunes.
A short biography of Thomas’s more-celebrated brother, Sir Henry Pottinger, Baronet (1785 – 18-3-1856), is provided below.
Sir Henry Pottinger
Author, soldier, adventurer, and diplomat, Henry Pottinger -- brother of Thomas (Generation 6) and uncle to Lionel Henry (Generation 5) -- had a most distinguished, and thoroughly-documented, military and political career, detailed in A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire (John Macdonald Kinneir, 1813); The Great Game (Peter Hopkirk, 1990) and his biography by George Pottinger (1995). As “Lieutenant Henry Pottinger of the Honourable East India Company’s Services, Assistant to the Resident at the Court of His Highness the Peishwa, and Late Assistant and Surveyor with the Missions to Sinde and Persia”, he is the author of Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, Accompanied by a Geographical and Historical Account of those Countries, With a Map (1816, currently in Rare Book section of University of Sydney), an account of his early exploits, during which he explored (1809-1811) the country between India and Persia while disguised as a native.
From a cadetship in the Indian Army (1804), Henry rose to the position of political agent in the Sind (1836-1840), following which he was appointed envoy to China, with a mandate to end the so-called ‘Opium War’ (not just about the trade in Indian-grown opium imported and sold – in defiance of the policy of the Cantonese government -- by British merchants to an eager Chinese population, but more about the British government’s outrage at China’s treatment of the merchants and the denial of any concept of trade being conducted between equals; the British, enjoying superiority in India, were unwilling to accept a position of subservience to a neighbouring oriental government, and were convinced of the need to acquire, for a commercial centre – in place of Canton, where they had no jurisdiction – an off-shore island, such as Lantau, Formosa, or – the eventual choice, made by Sir Henry – Hong Kong).
While the conciliatory attitude of Sir Henry’s predecessor (Captain Charles Elliot) had displeased the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Henry, by contrast, pursued English interests in China with the energy and decisiveness – not to mention an unwillingness to compromise – that the British government saw as essential to a successful outcome; arriving at Macao in August, 1841, he brought hostilities to an end within twelve months, taking – in short order – Amoy, Tinghai, Chusan Island, Chinhai, and Ningpo. Convinced that Hong Kong should be retained by Britain, free from Chinese domination, as the new centre of trade, he moved the headquarters of the Superintendancy of Trade there from Macao (March 1842), at the same time declaring it a free port. When, that same month, the Chinese renewed hostilities, Sir Henry led attacks on Shanghai, Chinkiang, and – most significantly – Nanking, where the Chinese government, to save the city, accepted all his terms and agreed (29-8-1842) to the Treaty of Nanking, to which Sir Henry was signatory on behalf of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, who rewarded him with a baronetage – Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath -- and the triple-position of Plenipotentiary and Minister Extraordinary, Chief Superintendent of the Trade, and first Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong (which had been ceded, at Sir Henry’s insistence, as part of the treaty conditions; “the retention of Hong Kong”, he later wrote, “is the only single point in which I intentionally exceeded my instructions”).
While Sir Henry, the ‘conquering hero’ with a genuine regard for his conquered land (which he described in a letter, as ‘a superb country’) created the structure of Hong Kong’s administration, applying a British system of government to an overwhelmingly-Chinese population, and precipitating the colony’s development into a major trade centre (to his credit, the first ordinance passed in Hong Kong under his jurisdiction was one forbidding all forms of slavery in the colony), he was less-popular – and, by all accounts, less-content -- as an administrator than he had been as a military officer and adventurer. G.B. Endacott (A History of Hong Kong, Oxford University Press, London, 1958) writes that “he was alone in upholding the public interest in the infant colony .... his stand involved him in a series of conflicts in which his great popularity vanished and he was driven into social isolation”. The 19th century Sinologue, Rev. James Legge, summed up Sir Henry’s achievements in China thus: “he was a good man, people said, to conquer China, and a bad man to rule Hong Kong” (cited by Cameron, Nigel (1991): An Illustrated History of Hong Kong, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong).
Sir Henry followed the governorship of Hong Kong (from which position he resigned in May, 1844) with equivalent appointments in the Cape of Good Hope (“a sad colony to deal with”, he wrote, noting that his peace-making efforts were not welcomed by the colonists, who were eager for hostilities to continue), and, finally, in his beloved India once more, as Governor of Madras, during which appointment he played an important part in the Second Sikh War and the Second Burmese War (while Sir Henry himself considered his role in Madras as the pinnacle of his career, his biographer, George Pottinger, notes that “in the Presidency he did not repeat his master-stroke at Hong Kong, or his modest achievement in the Cape”).
In poor health when he returned to England after relinquishing this last position, he sought a warmer climate in Malta, where he died (18-3-1856), and was buried in the Maida Bastion Cemetery. A memorial tablet (erected by his brother, William) in St George’s Church, Belfast, states that “from midshipman to general, he filled many of the most prominent offices under the Crown, with distinguished advantage to his country and great credit to himself, and his unbending integrity, high sense of honour, and generosity of character and disposition secured him the unbounded respect and esteem of all.”
Sir Frederick William Pottinger
The baronetage which Queen Victoria bestowed upon Sir Henry “for his services to the British Empire” allowed an extension to the family Coat of Arms. His son, Frederick William Pottinger, inherited the title and migrated to NSW, where he had a controversial career (during which time he was scrupulous in keeping secret his distinguished title) in the NSW Police Force, ridding much of the western district of bushrangers (the capture of Ben Hall and his gang being his principal goal) with a zeal and single-mindedness that has made him the subject of books and movies (in ‘Robbery Under Arms’ his name was, unaccountably, changed to ‘Monninger’).
Eventually his zeal proved to be his downfall; recommended by the Executive Council for dismissal from the force for a breach of regulations (he allegedly took part in a public horse race (January 5 and 6, 1865) as a strategy to lure his nemesis, Hall, out of hiding; while the ruse was, it seems, successful, Sir Frederick failed to apprehend or even recognise his quarry, thus introducing into the Australian vernacular the expression ‘Blind Freddie’), he travelled from Forbes to Sydney to argue the case for his reinstatement. On the return journey (5-3-1865) he left the coach at a scheduled stop at Wascoe’s Inn, Blaxland (currently a McDonalds restaurant featuring, at its entrance, a display – prepared by locally-based historian and bushranger expert, Edgar Penzig -- commemorating his career), and, reboarding as it pulled away, was seriously – and, in the long term, fatally -- wounded when the gun on his belt accidentally discharged, shooting him just below the ribs. His detractors subsequently fabricated an attempted suicide, and in at least one account he is depicted as holding the gun to his forehead in an attempt to eradicate his public disgrace; however, his death (in Randwick) a month later, as a result of his injury, was reported as the passing of a hero, and his funeral (Tuesday, 11-4-1865) was attended by many state dignitaries, including the Premier of NSW, the Minister for Public Works, and the Surveyor-General.
Newspapers with articles mentioning Sir Frederick William Pottinger include The Sydney Morning Herald (25-6-1853, at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/28621253?), and The Empire (27-8-1863, at http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/60547410?).
Anil Edwards submitted the following anecdote regarding the Pottingers in India: “My mother, Dorcas Singh, was adopted by Alice Potenger, in 1924. Her father was Gerald Potinger, an East India Company Lawyer, who married a ‘Kema’, her family were Armenians, they owned a jewelry store in Calcutta, Grandma had 2 sisters, both died in a Cholera epidemic that swept India in the 1920s. She became a missionary and ran a clinic in a village called Bullandhair United Provinces, India….where she adopted my mother after her own died during child-birth. She often referred to an uncle Henry Potenger, who I discovered was the 1st Governor General of Hong Kong, we had a few artefacts that were given to her as a young girl, brought back from China during Henry’s duration in China during the the Boxer revolution, but were all stolen after her death in 1958 in Lucknow, India….
There is lot more. My parents are retired school teachers who live in a Hill Station called Mussoorie Uttaranchal, North India. I’m sorry I did not quiz my Mom about Grandma, but this is all I can remember.”
M6: FULTON, Eliza B: c 1799
M: 7-6-1814 (Calcutta) Lt Thomas Pottinger, widower. (Reported in
Belfast Newsletter, 10-1-1815).
Eliza Fulton (granddaughter of John Fulton ‘of Calcutta’, and a distant cousin of the American inventor of the steamboat) was one of three children (others were Joseph, born 12-8-1800, and Francis Graham, born 31-3-1803) of John Williamson Fulton’s first marriage to an unknown woman of Indian or anglo-Indian origin (possibly she was John Williamson’s mistress; but since it is likely that she is the ‘Beebee Poll’ referred to in his will (‘beebee’ being a term usually designating a wife, and ‘Poll’ possibly an abbreviation of ‘Polly’), and since Eliza and the other two children were accepted by the family in Ireland, it is probable that Eliza’s mother was, in fact, legally married to John Williamson).
Eliza’s date of birth is uncertain; some sources record her as the third child of John Williamson Fulton, which would put her date of birth as after that of Francis Graham (born 1803). Under this interpretation, her marriage to Thomas Pottinger (7-6-1814, reliably reported in the Belfast Newsletter of 10-1-1815) woulds have taken place when she was no more than ten. The Scots Magazine and Edinburgh Literary Miscellany website (at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fultondata/MARR01.htm) records her as the eldest child, which allows more-comfortable dating (nonetheless, she still, certainly, married young: her youngest son, Lionel Henry Pottinger (Generation 5) was born almost twenty years after the wedding).
Eliza was Thomas’s second wife, his first wife, Charlotte Moore (mother of Eldred Pottinger, the ‘Hero of Herat’), having predeceased him. Eliza and Thomas had a possible seven children: sons John (born 7-5-1815, retired 1863, died in Ireland); Thomas (died 1842 in the retreat from Kabul); Henry (born 2-3-1818 in Carrickfergus, near Belfast, died 29-6-1843); and Lionel Henry (born 10-3-1834, resigned in India 22-8-1858). In addition, there were three daughters: Harriet, Fanny (unmarried), and Georgiana, who married Sir Lionel Smith-Jordan. The marriage was not well-regarded by either family: it was suggested in the will (written 4-7-1818) of Eliza’s aunt, Eliza Overend Fulton, of Lisburn, that Thomas had married Eliza mainly to restore the family fortunes, and Thomas’s own sons, Eldred and Thomas Jr, accused him of “dissipating his second wife’s dowry”.
Researcher Hugh Casement, in a paper researching the family of Newcomen of Saltfleetby, refers to Eliza Fulton as half-sister of John Williamson Fulton; it is important to remember that the name ‘John Williamson Fulton’ was used in at least three generations of this family, and the reference, in this case, is to the son of John Williamson Fulton and Anne Robertson, who was born the same year Eliza was married. (REF.: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~usher/usherirl/docs/Newcomen.doc).
Eliza’s parentage is discussed, at http://www.ashbourne-derbyshire.co.uk/Herat.htm, as part of an on-line biography of her step-son, Major Eldred Pottinger.
Eliza should not be confused with her aunt, John Williamson Fulton’s unmarried half-sister, Eliza Overend Fulton
(1771-1819), of Lisburn.
F6: STARR, William B: before 25-12-1810 (Christened 25-12-1810, Bassingbourn, Camb.)
M: 12-11-1829, Hannah (Anna) Willmott
Comments: Labourer. Place of residence: Shingay, Cambridgeshire.
Siblings: Sarah (before 7-7-1799 – before 8-3-1843); Elizabeth (born
before 12-7-1801); Stephen (born before 20-2-1805); Ann (born before 7-
2-1808); Mary (born before 9-4-1815).
M6: WILLMOTT, Hannah (Anna) B: c 1811, Litlington, Cambridgeshire.
M: 12-11-1829, William Starr
Siblings: Thomas (D.O.B. before 2-5-1830); Alfred (D.O.B. before 21-9-
1834; Sophia (born 1840).
F6: STEWART, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Stewart
STEWART, Jane (Jessie)
F6: STEWART, John B:
M: Jane Unknown
M6: UNKNOWN, Jane B:
M: John Stewart
F6: TRATHEN, Unknown B:
M: Unknown (possibly ‘Eliza’)
Comments: possibly ‘James’
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Trathen
Comments: possibly ‘Eliza’
F6: WILLIAMS, Unknown B:
M6: UNKNOWN B:
M: Unknown Williams