14, 15

Generation 14

ASHTON (ASSHETON), Elizabeth                KENNEDY, Gilbert
ASTON (ASHTON), Margaret                                     LAWRENCE, Thomas
BELLINGHAM, Sir Henry                                              LAWSON, William
BELLINGHAM, Margaret                                            LEGARD, Susan (Susanna, Susannah)
BEWLEY, Judith                                                             LIDDELL (LYDDALL), Thomas
BLAIR, Alexander                                                          LINDSAY, Margaret
BOYNTON, Dorothy                                                     LOWTHER, Sir John
CARNEGIE, David                                                          LYON, Jean
CARR, Barbarie (Barbara)                                          MACDOWALL, Margaret (or Katherine)
CHAYTOR, Eleanor                                                        MITFORD, Henry
Sir Richard         NEVILL, Catherine (Katherine)
COCHRANE, Elizabeth                                                  NEWMAN, Alice
CROSBIE, Unknown                                                      PENNE, Susan
CURWEN, Sir Christopher                                            PENRUDDOCK, Catherine
DOCWRA, Francis                                                          PRESTON, George
DOUGLAS, Robert                                                         RUTHVEN, Margaret
FAIRCHILD, William                                                      SANDERSON, Henry
FLETCHER, Mary                                                           SCOTT, Sir William
FOULIS, Margaret                                                        SKENE, Jean (Jane)
FULTON, Unknown                                                      STRANGWAYS (STRANGEWAYS), Barbara
GRAHAM, John                                                                                                                  (or Margaret)
HAMILTON, Sir Thomas                                              STRICKLAND, Sir Walter                                          
HOGHTON, Sir Gilbert                                                  STRICKLAND, Walter
HOME, Margaret                                                          WENTWORTH, Frances
KEITH, George                                                              


F14: BELLINGHAM, Sir Henry                       B: c 1590
M: c1622 (before 8-9-1623), Dorothy Boynton
D: 1650
                                                                                Sir Henry Bellinhgham

Sir Henry Bellingham, of Levens (Westmorland) was one of the representatives of the County in Parliament which met November 3, 1640. There is a coat of arms in stained glass at Levens Hall, of Sir Henry and his wife, Dorothy.

Sir Henry’s sister, Dorothy, married Sir Ralph Assheton, whose sister Elizabeth Asheton (Assheton) is recorded in Generation 14 as wife of George Preston.

(from Kirkby in Kendale: 1572-1650, Records relating to the Barony of Kendale: volume 1 (1923), pp. 92-119. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=49277):

 “Sir Henry Bellingham of Helsington and Levens, bart., in 1646 compounds for delinquency. Being a member of the House of Commons he went to Oxford and sat in the Assembly. His fine was fixed 23 Feb., 1647, at £3228, being one third value of his estates; to be abated if he prove that he has only a life-interest in £300 a year. There is a long account of the compositions made by Sir James Bellingham, Allan Bellingham, £1,172; Lady Katherine Bellingham, widow of Sir James, £721; Agnes Wentworth, daughter of Sir Henry, £175; John and Elizabeth Lowther; ib., 1136–38” (Agnes Wentworth, mentioned is Henry’s eldest daughter (died 1668), elder sister of Elizabeth Bellingham (Generation 13) and wife of Sir Thomas Wentworth of North Elmsall).

“1643 August 9. Henry Bellingham of Levens, knt. and baronet, agrees with Richard Washington of Kirkby Kendall, mercer, to pass to him the tenant right of the burgage-house in Market street in Kendal commonly called ‘The Bull’, according to the custom of tenant right used in Kendal, excepting only 3 shops, parcel of the said house, which anciently have been rented severally and are now in the possession of William Kendall, Robert Burton and John Harrison of Patterdall, subject to the rent of 51s. 4d. Richard Washington is to repair the houses and to be excused two years’ rent. The bailiff of Skelsmerge shall be directed to deliver to him four trees at the sight and setting out of George Lickbarrow.”

(This same source further reports that, on 28-12-1650, there were “offers made for the following estates of delinquents and Papists for one year’s tenancy from 2 February next, and for six years thereafter: George Archer of Kendal for Sir Henry Bellingham’s estate, £900”).
M14: BOYNTON, Dorothy                             B: 1594
M: c1622 (before 8-9-1623), Sir Henry Bellingham
D: 23-1-1626.
                                                                                Dorothy Boynton

Mother of eight children, Dorothy Boynton died in childbed (January 23, 1626) in her 32nd year, and was buried in the Church of Eversham, near Kendal (Westmorland), where, in the north aisle adjoining the Chancel, there is a monument to her memory.

CARNEGIE, Magdalen

F14: CARNEGIE, David                                    B: 1575
                                                                                M: Contract signed 8-10-1595, Margaret Lindsay
                                                            D: 1658
David Carnegie

The First Earl of Southesk (created 22-6-1633) and the First Lord Carnegie, David Carnegie has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. Direct quotes in the following biography are taken from William Fraser, History of the Carnegies, Earls of Southesk, and of their kindred (Volume 1), cited at http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/william-fraser/history-of-the-carnegies-earls-of-southesk-and-of-their-kindred-volume-1-sar/1-history-of-the-carnegies-earls-of-southesk-and-of-their-kindred-volume-1-sar.shtml:

During a long and distinguished career, Sir David Carnegie of Kinnaird “spent a life adorned by virtue through a long course of years, in unwearied toils and watchings in attending the affairs of the King and the realm …(he) hath unobtrusively exhibited singular prudence, soimd judgment, and zeal towards the King, not only in all congresses and assemblies, public conventions and parliaments of the Three Estates of Scotland, but also, by
his laudable endeavours, upright counsel, and faithful suffrage, hath zealously striven to promote the Union of the kingdoms of Scotland and England” (from the citation written on the occasion of his investiture as Lord Kinnaird, 14-4-1616).

Three years before his succession to his father’s estates of Kinnaird (in 1598), David married Margaret Lindsay, daughter of his neighbour, Sir David Lindsay of Edzel and his wife, Lady Helen Lindsay (only daughter of David, tenth Earl of Crawford). “On the occasion of this marriage, his father became bound to provide the lands of Colluthie and Balmedyside, and the barony of Leuchars, all in the county of Fife, and the barony of Panbride, in the county of Forfar, in favour of his son David Carnegie and his wife, in conjunct fee, and the heirs-male of the marriage. Sir David Lindsay also thereby provides his daughter to a tocher of ten thousand merks. The contract for this marriage bears date at Brechin 8th October 1595”. Margaret bore him four sons (at least one of whom – his heir, David Carnegie – predeceased him, dying 25-10-1633) and six daughters; she died (1614) two years before his investiture as Lord Carnegie.

Friend and adviser to two kings (and saluted as ‘our richt traist friend’, and ‘trusty and wellbeloved’ in still-extant letters written by James VI), David Carnegie “inherited the talents of his father and grandfather for public business, and, like them, spent a long and active life in the service of his country”, gaining, in the process, two peearges and a slew of titles: Commissioner to consult upon a Perfect Union of the realms of Scotland and England (1604), Commissioner for suppressing the crime of rape (1609), Commissioner for reforming abuses in the University of St Andrews (1609), Commissioner for the Province of St Andrews (1610 ansd 1615), Commissioner for considering Penal Laws and Taxation (both 1612), Commissioner for the Shire of Fife (1612), Extraordinary Lord of Sessions (1616-1625), Assistant to the Royal Commissioner to the Assembly (1616), Privy Councillor (1617), Sheriff of the County of Forfar, Commissioner for the Plantation of Kirks (1621); “one of those for regulating the taxt roll within the sheriffdome of Kincardiae; and likewise one of those for modifying bench duties and ministers’ stipends in the erected prelacies” (1621); Commissioner on the Laws (1630 and 1633), and a member of the Committee of Estates (1645, 1648, and 1651).

Skilled in negotiation, he “was induced to take part in the ecclesiastical questions which agitated Scotland”during the turbulent reign of James VI (who, noting his distinguished participation at the first General Assembly (Lilithgow, December 10, 1606) aimed at “composing the differences which still continued in the Church, and for taking order by reason of the great increase of Papists”, urged his presence at a second (also at Linlithgow, in July, 1608), writing to his “trusty and welbeloved Sir Dauid Carnegy of Kinnaird, Knight” that “your presence there may doe much good, We are to desire you earnestly noe way to be absent from that Assembly, and by your counsell and advice to further the pacifieing of all question that is in the Church, and to asist any such course that shall be propounded for suppressing of contrarie professors: wherein, noe way doubting but your owne zeale and affection to the trewth professed shall be motives sufficient, ye shall also therewith gayne our speciall thanks”) and, later, of James’s successor, King Charles I, who referred to him as “the King’s very dear cousin and counsellour”.

Problems between the Royal Family and the church leaders did not end with the second General Assembly; David Carnegie’s loyalty to his Kings and his sense of public duty “led him to take the part of mediator between the contending factions”, a task which he carried out with such distinction that, at the coronation of Charles I (June 18, 1633, in the Abbey Church of Holyrood), David was created Earl of Southesk. The Patent (dated at Holyrood House, June 22, 1633) refers first to his grandfather, Robert, and his father, David of Colluthie: “the King considering that the late Sir Robert Carnegie of Kinnaird, Knight, had with the most laudable zeal performed many good and excellent services to his grandmother, Queen Mary, and his great-grandmother, of lasting memory, partly by transacting the highest and most important affairs of the ancient kingdom of Scotland, and partly by proceeding, at their command, on embassies to England and France; and that the late David Carnegie of Colluthie, son of the said late Sir Robert, diligently imitating the praiseworthy example of his father, had spent many years with much zeal and energy in the affairs of King James VI. and in those of Scotland; and lastly, that the King’s very dear cousin and counsellour David Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird, following the footsteps of his father, has for many years with the greatest zeal not only rendered distinguished services to the King, and to his father, King James VI, in the Privy Council, Session, and Exchequer, but also in all councils and public conventions and meetings of the Estates and Parliaments, and has shown his singular prudence and diligent zeal and affection towards them; therefore his Majesty makes and creates David Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird, Earl of Southesk, Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird and Leuchars, to be held by him and his heirs-male for ever”.

The devotion which had endeared him to two Scottish kings also made him powerful enemies; although, by the time of the emergence of Oliver Cromwell, David Carnegie had, on account of his advanced age, all-but retired from public life, “his privacy did not secure him against the greedy grasp of the victorious Cromwell, who fined him in the large sum of £3000 for no other reason, we are told by Crawford, than his wishing well to the King and the monarchy”.

David Carnegie has gone down in Scottish history as “a wise, sagacious, prudent and honest statesman, as well as an upright judge…his calmness and moderation were conspicuous, and disposed him…. though not always with success, to act the part of a mediator between the King and the people…. whether acting as a Civil or as an Ecclesiastical Commissioner, showed himself worthy of the credit and trust reposed in him in these employments, as appears from the following letter addressed to him by King James, dated the 13th October 1611: ‘Trustie and welbeloved, we greete yow well: Being advertised by our Secreatarie of your carefull diligence in the execution of your place and charge, as one of our Justices of our peace within that Sherifdome, and in speciall of your frequent meeting and keeping of Quarter Sessions, concurring alwayes with your fellow Justices at there conveyninges; whereby yow haue gevon good proofe of your affection to cure service, and haue shewed your self worthie of the creditt and trust reposed in yow, we could not but take speciall notice thereof, and returne vnto yow our hartie thankes: Not doubting of the continewance of your forwardnes in our said service (as a good example to stirr vp others to the lyke), whereof we will not be vnmyndfull’.”

M14: LINDSAY, Margaret                              B:
                                                                       M: Contract signed 8-10-1595, David Carnegie, 1st earl of Southesk
                                                                                D: 9-7-1614
                                                                                Comments: Died 2 years before her husband was created Lord Southesk

CHOLMLEY, Margaret

F14: CHOLMLEY (CHOMELY, CHOLMONDELEY), Sir Richard                        
B: 1580
                                                                                M: (i) 1596, Susan (Susanna, Susannah) Legard
                                                                                      (ii) 1613, Margaret Cobb, sister of Sir WIlliam Cobb of Adderbury
                                                                                D: 23-9-1631

                                                                                Sir Richard Cholmley (Chomely, Cholmondeley)

Knighted (1603) at Gratton (Nothamptonshire), Sir Richard Cholmley (Chomely, Cholmondeley) resided (from 1608) at Whitby, in Yorkshire, where he became a J.P. and Deputy-Lieutenant and, in 1624, High Sheriff. In 1621 he was elected Member of Parliament for Scarborough.

Dying in 1631, Sir Richard was buried in the chancel of the Church of Saint Mary, Whitby, where his widow (second wife Margaret Cobb) erected, in his memory, a marble and alabaster monument.

M14: LEGARD, Susan (Susanna, Susannah)              
B: 1578
                                                                                M: 1596, Sir Richard Cholmley (Chomely, Cholmondeley)
                                                                                D: 1611

                                                                                Susan (Susanna, Susannah) Legard

According to Elizabeth Gaskell’s ‘English Fiction’ book, Some Passage From The History Of The Chomely Family (at http://www.logoslibrary.eu/index.php?phrase=mdash&code_language=EN&newsearch=1), “Susanna Legard …. died in 1611 of a fever she had caught in going to see her son Hugh, who was ill at Scarborough”.

Susan (Susanna, Susannah) Legard was buried at Scorborough, Yorkshire.

COCHRANE, Sir William of Ardoss

F14: BLAIR, Alexander                                    B:
                                                                                M:         Elizabeth Cochrane

                                                                                 Alexander Blair

Alexander Blair, “a younger son of John Blair of that ilk (an ancient and honorable family in the shire of Renfrew) by Grizel his wife, daughter of Robert lord Semple” (Cochrane Earl of Dundonald, http://www.clancochrane.org/DundonaldLineage.htm), immediately, upon his marriage to his cousin, Elizabeth, assumed “the name and arms of Cochrane….all which appears from a charter under the great seal of king James VI, of the lands and barony of Cochrane, to and in favours of Alexander Cochrane, alias Blair, third lawful son of John Blair of that ilk, and Elizabeth Cochrane his spouse, third lawful daughter of William Cochrane of that ilk, dated 7th February 1601. He got also a charter under the great seal of several other lands, Alexandre Cochrane de evderst (sp), dated anno 1618. He was a man of singular virtue and probity, and greatly improved the estate of the family. By the said Elizabeth Cochrane, he left issue of seven sons and two daughters” (op. cit).

The eldest of these sons, John Cochrane, was, of course, intended to inherit these estates; however, he died (supporting his king, Charles II, in his exile) without issue, opening the way for the second son, William of Ardoss (Generation 13) to inherit.

M14: COCHRANE, Elizabeth                         B: c 1580
                                                                                M:           Alexander Blair
Elizabeth Cochrane

Elizabeth Cochrane is generally regarded by genealogists as the third daughter (although John Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain, Vol 4 considers her the only child; certainly, her father had no male issue) of William Cochrane (Generation 15); for reasons unknown, she became the inheritor of all his estate. Burke (citing “Crawford under the title of ‘Dundonald’”) records (1838, op. cit.) that “her father wisely considering the proper way of supporting his family, and declining to marry her into a richer family than his own, was to settle his daughter in his own time, he made a prudent and discreet match for her with Alexander Blair, a younger son of an ancient and genteel family, in Ayrshire, whose ancestors had been seated in the county foresaid for many ages before….(Alexander) yielded to change his name to Cochrane, which was almost the only condition the old gentleman required. This Alexander, so taking upon him the surname of Cochrane, was a virtuous and frugal man, and studied as much the good of the family as if he had been born the heir thereof” (Alexander was, in fact, her cousin; and the terms of the union obliged all future male issue to assume the name ‘Cochrane’).

CROSBIE, Unknown (Rev.)

F14: CROSBIE, Unknown                               B:
                                                                                M:            Unknown

M14: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:            Unknown Crosbie

CURWEN, Sir Thomas

F14: CURWEN, Sir Christopher                    B: c 1477
                                                                                M: 3-8-1492. Margaret Bellingham of Bellingham, Burnshead,
                                                                                      Westmorland (by dispensation) at Workington, Cumberland.
                                                                                Comments: Sheriff of Cumberland 1525 and1534. Styled a knight in the
                                                                                Visitation Pedigree of 1615 (the heralds’ visitations were enquiries carried
                                                                                out during the 1500s and 1600s under the authority of the Royal
                                                                                Commissions by Kings of Arms or their deputies, their purpose being to
                                                                                verify the validity of claims to arms and gentility; evidence was received
                                                                                and pedigrees, of varying detail, were prepared).
Sir Christopher’s sister, Lucy Curwen (born c 1490), is recorded in    
                                                            Generation 19 as wife of Sir John Lowther.
F14: BELLINGHAM, Margaret                    B: c 1478
                                                            M: 3-8-1492. Sir Christopher Curwen.
                                                                                Comments: Margaret Bellingham’s grandfather, Henry Bellingham
                                                                                (Generation 16) was the brother of Alan Bellingham (Generation 17),
                                                                                whose great-grandson, James Bellingham, is recorded in Generation 15 as
                                                                                husband of Agnes Curwen (Margaret’s great-granddaughter).


F14: DOCWRA, Francis                                   B: before 14-12-1558 (date of baptism), Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire.
                                                                                M: c 1587, Susan Penne
                                                                                D: before 26-9-1626 (date of burial), Bassingbourn, Cambridgeshire.
Comments: above data compiled by Philip Hunt, http://www.philiphunt.com/Hunt%20Tree-o/p61.htm#i5776. In addition,
                                                            Odd Ottesen (26-10-2001,
                                                            10/1004093521) provides the following biographical information: “died
                                                            about 1626 (will proved 1626). Married Susan Penne, daughter of Thomas
                                                            Penne of Codicate, Hertforshire (GT) and Margery Saunders…. Francis
                                                            Docwra may ….have lived in Codicate, Hertfordshire.”

M14: PENNE, Susan                                        B: c 1560, Hertfordshire
                                                                                M:  c 1587, Francis Docwra

Susan Penne

Odd Ottesen (26-10-2001, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DOCWRA/2001-10/1004093521) provides the following biographical information: “daughter of Thomas Penne of Codicate, Hertfordshire (GT) and Margery Saunders, daughter of Thomas Saunders of Agmondisham (Amersham), Buckinghamshire. Thomas Penne was son of John Penne of Codicote (grome of the Privy Chamber and barber to Henry VIII) and Lucy (daughter and heir of Edmond Chevall of Codicote). (VH, p. 82 and 116 - here Susan is mentioned without the name of her husband.)”

On 3-11-2001, at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DOCWRA/2001-11/1004762144, Ottesen noted that “a brother of Susan was John Penne of Codicote, who matriculated at the University of Cambridge 1577 and died before 1602, married Margaret Charge and whose son was Thomas Penne of Codicote.”

DOUGLAS, William

F14: DOUGLAS, Robert                                  B: c 1562, Rothesay, Bute, Scotland.
                                                                                M:  19-3-1582, Jean Lyon
                                                                                D: after 20-1-1601.

Robert Douglas, Master of Morton

The one thing seemingly agreed on by researchers into the life of Robert Douglas ‘the younger of Lochleven’ is that it ended in either 1584 or 1585, when he was killed by pirates (some researchers identify the location as ‘Atlantic Ocean, off New Jersey, USA’). However, it would seem likely that this refers, not to his date of death, but to the date of his capture. The website devoted to the History of the Barony of  Mordington to 1636 (www.peerage.org/genealogy/barony_of_mordington.htm)   records that Robert “disappeared while travelling abroad some time after 24th December 1584 with his brother-in-law, the Master of Oliphant, and in 1600 a petition was presented to Elizabeth I for an expedition for the relief of the Master of Morton and the Master of Oliphant, reported to have been made slaves by the Turks, and to be then detained in captivity in the town of Algiers, on the Barbary coast (SP, VI, 375)”.

The response to this petition was a letter from Queen Elizabeth I (written 20-1-1601) , addressed to the Ottoman sultan, Mahomet Chan, and cited in Elizabeth I: collected works By Elizabeth I (Queen of England), by Leah Sinanoglou Marcus, Janel M. Mueller, Mary Beth Rose (2001); it says, in part:

 “We are pressed at this time by the earnest suit of the friends of certain distressed gentlemen to entreat your princely favour and relief of their extremities; whose names are Lawrence Oliphant, Master of Oliphant, and Robert Douglas, Master of Morton, two sons and heirs of two noblemen, subjects of our neighbour and good brother the King of Scotland, who having been many years since taken prisoners casually at sea by pirates, and by them sold in Barbary for bondmen, have ever since remained in that state of captivity, and so much the more miserable because none of their friends knew of their being, until that of late it hath been understood (though not of certainty) that they are prisoners in Argier, under the viceroy there, your tributary.

Upon knowledge whereof, their friends and kinsfolk have sent and authorised this bearer, Robert Oliphant, one of their kinred (sic), to seek and enquire of their estate and to procure their redemption from that servitude; who knowing no other way of address to you, because they are of a nation that have little trade in those quarters of the world, have humbly besought our letters and furtherance to you; which we as willingly have yielded, for that the said persons were not taken in action of war by sea or land against you or your people, whereby you might have cause of just indignation against them, but only by mere casualty of fortune, deserving the compassion of all princes. Whereof our earnest desire is that you interpose your authority toward the said viceroy of Argier, that he will set the said Lawrence Oliphant and Robert Douglas at liberty; if they be found under him or any other of your dominions, to return home to their native country, whereby you shall increase in us the kind remembrance we have of your former friendships, and oblige us to requite it in any like manner you may require at our hands….”

While Robert Douglas may, in fact, have died between the time his condition was reported to Queen Elizabeth and the writing of her petition, the letter suggests that it is highly unlikely that his death occurred in December,1584, or, indeed, within some 15 years of that date. This research will tentatively record his death as ‘after 20-1-1601’. There is no evidence that he ever returned to his homeland, and, on the death of his father, William Douglas, 5th (or 6th) Earl of Morton, in 1606, the title of Lord of Morton passed directly to Robert’s son, William (Generation 13).

M14: LYON, Jean                                              B:
                                                                                M: (i) 19-3-1581, Robert Douglas, Master of Morton
                                                                                      (ii)  29-7-1587, by contract, Archibald Douglas, 8th earl Angus
      (iii)  31-5-1590, Alexander Lindsay (Lord Spynie), brother of Lady
                                                                                Helen Lindsay (Generation 15)
                                                                                D: between 7-8-1607 and 23-2-1611.
                                                                                Comments: all three marriages produced children.         


F14: FAIRCHILD, William                                B: 19-2-1574
                                                                                M: 26-4-1593, Wendy-cum-Shingay, Alice Newman

M14: NEWMAN, Alice                                    B: c 1573
                                                                                M: 26-4-1593, Wendy-cum-Shingay, William Fairchild
                                                                                D: 27-10-1632


F14: FULTON, Unknown                                B:
                                                                                M:           Unknown
M14: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:            Unknown Fulton

F14: GRAHAM, John                                       B: 1573
                                                                                M:  Contract 12-12-1593, Margaret Ruthven
                                                                                D: 14-11-1626

                                                                                John Graham, 4th Earl of Montrose

John Graham, 4th Earl of Montrose “being a person of great parts and abilities, was (as Loyd writes in his Memoirs of Loyalists, p. 638), Ambassador to several Princes, and after the accession of Charles I to the Crown, named President of His Majesty’s most honourable Privy-Council, which he enjoyed even till his death….. by Margaret his wife, daughter of William Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie, he had James, his son and heir, first Marquis of Montrose. Also four daughters: Lady Lilias, married to Sir John Colquhoun of Luss,, Bart; Lucy Margaret, to Archibald, First Lord of Napier; Lady Dorothea to James, first Lord Rollo; and Lady Beatrix, to David Drummond, Lord Maderty” (Collins, Arthur, and Brydges, Egerton: Collins’s Peerage of England: Genealogical, Biographical and Historical, 1812).

In fact, there is evidence of a sixth child: “..an undoubted Lady Catherine Graham, the fifth daughter of the fourth Earl of Montrose, who in 1631 was abducted by her sister’s husband, Sir John Colquhoun of Luss, for which crime he was outlawed” (Stevenson, H.J. (ed): The Scottish Antiquary or Northern Notes and Queries, 1886).

John Graham, whose titles included Privy Councillor  (1604),  High Commissioner in the General Assembly (1616),  and President of the Council in Scotland (1626), married his second cousin, Margaret Ruthven, daughter of the 1st earl of Gowrie.

M14: RUTHVEN, Margaret                           B:
                                                                                M: Contract 12-12-1593, John Graham, 4th earl of Montrose.
                                                                                D:  before 15-4-1618 (date of burial)
                                                                                Comments: Eldest daughter of William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie. She
                                                                                was her husband’s second cousin. Not to be confused with Margaret
                                                                                Ruthven (born c 1400), wife of Sir Walter Drummond (Generation 21),
                                                                                whose father was also named William Ruthven.


F14: HAMILTON, Sir Thomas                        B: 1563
                                                                                M: (i) c 1588, Margaret Borthwick (died December, 1596)
                                                                                      (ii) before August, 1597, Margaret Foulis (died May, 1609)                                                                                                        (iii)  16-9-1613, Julian Ker (died March, 1637)
                                                                                D: 29-5-1637

                                                                                Sir Thomas Hamilton

Educated, first, at Edinburgh High School and, later, at the Paris University, Thomas Hamilton, 1st Earl of Haddington (designated before his peerage as ‘of Drumcarny, Monkland, and Binning’), was a Scottish administrator and judge. Referred to familiarly by his friends as ‘Tam o’ the Cowgate’ (his Edinburgh residence being in that street), he was, in turn, Lord Advocate (admitted in 1587), Lord of Session (1592-1626), King’s Advocate (January, 1595/6), Lord Clerk of the Register to the Privy Council (1612, succeeding Lord Curriehill), Lord President of the Court of Session (1616-1626), and Lord Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire.

One of eight men (called ‘the Octavians’) appointed to manage the finances of Scotland, Thomas’s legal talents were of considerable use to the King; he was, consequently, on friendly terms with James VI, and, esteemed as an able administrator, was entrusted with a large share in the government of Scotland when James removed to London in 1603 (the same year that Thomas was invested as a Knight). He held the office of Secretary of State for Scotland between 1612 and 1626. He was created (19-11-1613) a Lord of Parliament as 1st Lord Binning, and, later, 1st Earl of Melrose (20-3-1619); he

After the death of James VI (1625), Sir Thomas served his successor, Charles I, accepting (18-10-1627) the office of Lord Privy Seal, with
precedence immediately next to the Lord Treasurer. He then resigned his office of Secretary which he had held for so long a time, but 
continued to take a large share in the public business of his time. He was present at the coronation (18-6-1633), at Holyrood, of King 
Charles I as King of Scotland (Charles had previously been crowned king of England and Ireland). 
Subsequently, Sir Thomasmade himself a very useful member of a commission which was appointed in 1627 to receive surrenders of 
superiorities of church lands and tithes, and to treat as to the valuation and sale of teinds, stipends of ministers, etc. Such good service 
did he do to the King in this and other respects that on 17 August 1627 he received a patent from the King narrating that in recognition 
of his continued and faithful services, as well as to excite others to emulate the same, he had, with the consent of the Earl, promoted him 
and his heirs-male to the honour, style, and title of Earl of Haddington, with the precedence of his creation as Earl of Melrose” (James 
Balfour Paul, The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and 
genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom, at 
http://www.archive.org/stream/scotspeeragefoun04pauluoft/scotspeeragefoun04pauluoft_djvu.txt). The original – and only – Viscount 
of Haddington, John Ramsay, had died on 28-2-1626; James Balfour Paul (op.cit.) categorises this exchange of titles as “a curious instance 
of a title having been altered in this way, and the reason has never been satisfactorily explained” (it was intended as a reward, but the two
titles were, it seems, virtually identical in status).
Sir Thomas married three times, surviving all three wives. His first marriage (c 1588) was to Margaret, only child of James Borthwick of 
Newbyres, who gave him two daughters. After her death (December 1596), he married (before August 1597) Margaret, daughter of James
Foulis of Oolinton, who gave him three sons and four daughters before her death on 31-5-1609. His third wife (married September, 1613) 
was the widow of Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, Dame Julian Ker (daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Ferniehirst). “It would rather appear from 
some interesting letters of his which have been preserved, that she occasionally somewhat tried her husband by her extravagance. 
Indeed, before she died she was actually put to the horn, but her effects, assumed to be forfeited to the Crown, were bestowed upon her 
husband, and by him assigned after her death to her stepson, the successor to the Peerage. Lady Haddington died in March 1637, and was
buried on the 30th of that month at Holyrood.” (James Balfour Paul, op. cit.). Sir Thomas died less than two months later.
“An able and patriotic statesman, Haddington was none the less an industrious as well as a brilliant lawyer. The consequence was that he 
amassed a large fortune, most of which he invested in the purchase of land. At a date not long before his death the rental accruing from 
his estates is estimated to have been upwards of 68,000 Scots, an income of which few, if any, Scottish peers in the seventeenth century 
could boast…. On 14 December 1596 he had, on his father's resignation, a charter of the kirklands of Dalmeny; on 14 April 1597 a charter
was granted to his father in liferent and himself in fee of the lands of Priestfield; on 30 May 1597 a similar charter, but including his wife 
Margaret Foulis, was granted of the lands of Balbyn and Drumcairn; on 27 March 1601 he had a grant in feu of the lands of Humble, co. 
Linlithgow; had also charters of Wester Binning and the church lands of Easter, Wester, and Middle Binning, lands which were created into
a barony 25 August 1603. On 3 August 1603 he had a charter of the lands and barony of Monkland, but sold them shortly afterwards. On 
29 January 1607 he had a grant of the right of working minerals within the barony of Ballincreiff and other lands in the county of 
Linlithgow, and was made Master of the Metals on 25 March following; he had a charter on 2 June 1607 of the lands of Drumcross, 
county Linlithgow. On 6 June 1609 he had a charter of the barony of Byres, which he had purchased from John, eighth Lord Lindsay, for 
33,333, 6s. 8d. Scots. On 15 January 1610 he had a grant in feu-farm of the lands of Oastlemilk and others in Annandale possessed by 
John, Lord Maxwell. In 1614 he got a large accession of property, having purchased the temple lands of Drem and others in various 
counties in Scotland, which were united into one barony of Drem. In 1618 he purchased from Sir John Ramsay the whole of the lordship 
of Melrose, from which he originally took his title as Earl. In 1628 Lord Haddington, as he had by that time become, purchased the lands 
and barony of Tynninghame from the Earl of Annandale for 200,000 merks, and had a charter of the same under the Great Seal 7 
February 1628. This became the principal country residence of the family, and has continued to be so up to the present time. Subsequent
acquisitions of Lord Haddington were Luffness, co. Haddington, in 1633, and Coldstream and Oowdenknows, co. Berwick, in 1634.” 
(James Balfour Paul, op. cit.)

M14: FOULIS, Margaret                                 B: c 1567
                                                                                M:  c 1596, Sir Thomas Hamilton
                                                                                D: 31-5-1609
Comments: sister of Sir David Foulis (full biography in Dictionary of
National Biography, volume 20, djvu/79), cofferer to both Prince Henry
and Prince Charles, and “held high in the favour of James I”; he was the
recipient (1614) of a famous letter of advice to the king sent from Italy by
Sir Robert Dudley (duke of Northumberland) and the author of  A
Declaration of the Diet and Particular Fare of King Charles I when Duke of
York, printed in 1802 by Mr. Edmund Turnor in Archseologia, xv. 1-12.

HOGHTON, Katherine

F14: HOGHTON, Sir Gilbert                           B: 1590
                                                                                M:              Margaret Aston (Ashton)
                                                                                D: 1647
Sir Gilbert Hoghton

Succeeding to the baronetage on the death (1630) of his father, Sir Gilbert Hoghton was honoured (7-4-1637) by Charles I with a grant, to himself and his eldest son, of the right to wear special livery, the Hunting Stewart tartan.

Sir Gilbert Hoghton was an important Royalist in the county, serving as one of the several Deputy-Lieutenants and Commissioners of Array for, and Sheriff of, Lancashire, with responsibility for the Fylde; he also served on the council of Lord Strange (Earl of Derby), the Royalist Commander in Lancashire (these posts meant that Sir Gilbert was responsible for the raising and equipping of troops on behalf of the King and keeping them in readiness for combat; furthermore, his position on the Council meant that he was involved in policy-making and the conduct of the civil war in Lancashire).  

Hostilities in Lancashire began (on 10-1-1642, by which time Sir Gilbert was already aged 51) with the Commission of Array issued to Lord Strange (later Earl of Derby) by the King. When it was proclaimed at Manchester (July 15) -- resulting in a skirmish and the death of Richard Percivall, a Parliamentarian linen-weaver – it precipitated, within two months, the siege of Manchester, led by Lord Strange (at the head of 4300 Royalist troops) and, as one of his senior officers, Sir Gilbert Hoghton (the siege, which lasted a week, ended when orders were received to join the King at Shrewsbury to prepare to fight the army of the Earl of Essex). At this time, Sir Gilbert was famous for not only marching with the troops assigned to him, but with clubman, trained bands, and his own tenants; their uniform, therefore, was never confirmed: they were reputed to have been arrayed in all black, red coats, regular clothes, or white and yellow, which were the Hoghton colors.

Loyalties in Lancashire early in the Civil War were divided, with the people of Blackburn siding mostly with Parliament; in October 1642, circa 300 men of the Royalist Lancashire Trayned Bandes and clubmen, summoned from the Fylde by Sir Gilbert Hoghton by a signal beacon at Hoghton Tower, marched against Whalley (home of the Assheton family), where there was a large store of arms as a result of the disarming of Roman Catholics in 1641. Whalley fell without a struggle, whereupon Sir Gilbert moved his forces onwards to Blackburn. 

Hearing of Hoghton’s activities, Colonel Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe Hall and Colonel Starkie, having heard of Sir Gilbert’s acyivities, raised a force of 8,000 men, attacked his army by night, and forced them to flee, leaving behind all their arms. Sir Gilbert was resolved to retake Blackburn and avenge this defeat, especially as it was so close to Hoghton Tower; he therefore brought his force on Christmas Eve to the outskirts of Blackburn, but, probably feeling uncertain of his men after their last defeat, failed to close on the Blackburn garrison, and the one small cannon that they possessed did no damage (in fact, the only damage that Blackburn sustained was when a bullet entered a house and shot out the bottom of a frying pan). At nightfall they retreated so that “they myght eet theyr Chrystmas pyes at home”.

On 7-2-1643, Parliamentarian forces from Manchester, Bolton and East Lancashire, under the command of Sir John Seaton, assembled at Blackburn in preparation for an assault on Preston, 10 miles away. The Royalist force at Preston was “Sir Gilbert Hoghton’s Dragoons, two or three companies of foot, Sir Thomas Tyldesley’s Dragoons which were in the process of being raised under Captain William Blundell and two troops of horse, under Major Anderton of Tyldesley’s and Captain Radcliffe Hoghton”. Next evening (February 8), the Parliamentarians, having crossed the River Ribble at Walton (which the Royalists had left unguarded), moved against Preston and formed up near the town walls under the cover of darkness; shortly before daybreak they attacked with about 2500 men, breaching the defences. Resistance began to collapse; Sir Gilbert managed to make his getaway to Wigan, but his wife was captured, along with several hundred prisoners, including Sir Gilbert’s nephew, Captain Hoghton. Some six weeks later the Earl of Derby recaptured the town. 

On February 23, King Charles wrote a letter to Sir Gilbert Hoghton saying, “Now that the Rebels seeme to ayme at a more forcible disturbance thereof, repaire unto and continue at your proper Mansion with your family and usuall retinue that others being encouraged and counterbalanced by your good example, you and they may be the better at hand to assist each other for the preservation and defence of the county.” Shortly after the taking of Preston by Seaton, Hoghton Tower -- at the time held a garrison of only about thrty musketeers -- was besieged by Parliamentary troops under Captain Nicholas Starkie of Huntroyd. The defenders quickly capitulated (February 14), but when the Roundheads entered the house, the powder magazine in the old pele tower between the two courtyards exploded, killing over 100 Parliamentary men. This central tower was never rebuilt.

The last act of Sir Gilbert in the Civil War was at Chester in October, 1643, where he had been sent to await the arrival of the King’s Irish army, with whom he and Lord Byron (with whom Sir Gilbert was not on good terms) made a surprise attack on Colonel Assheton’s Lancashire regiment. A quarrel with Byron ensued, after which Sir Gilbert declined to take part in further actions, either at Chester or elsewhere. His unwillingness to continue the fight was probably also compounded by the loss (1643) of his son, Roger, a Captain of Horse under Molyneux and Tyldesley, as well as by the fact that his eldest son and heir, Richard, was, in contrast to his father, fighting on the side of Parliament (Richard Hoghton was appointed by Parliament (1644) to the Office of Steward and Bailiff of Crown lands in Yorkshire and Lancashire; by 1647, at which time he inherited the baronetcy on the death of his father, he held a colonel’s commission in Assheton’s Regiment, the regiment Cromwell referred to after the battle of Preston as “the best pikemen he had seen”. Sir Richard later became famous during the trial and imprisonment of the Earl of Derby, when he, having “represented to Cromwell the impolicy and danger of suffering the Earl of Derby to be at large, now that he had fallen into their hands…..moved for and obtained a commission to have him tried by a military court of inquiry, or pretended court-martial, consisting of twelve sequestrators and committee-men, packed together by their own appointment”).

In the late 1960s, about twenty shoe boxes of documents -- muster rolls, color details, regimental order books, etc. – from Sir Gilbert’s regiment were deposited in the County Records, from Downham Hall, making this possibly the best-recorded of all regiments. The documents were seen and then sent to London, but soon after were lost.  
M14: ASTON (ASHTON), Margaret           B:
                                                                                M:               Sir Gilbert Hoghton
                                                                                D: 23-12-1657


F14: KEITH, George                                         B: 1553, Dunnotar, Kincardi, Scotland.
                                                                                M: (i) Marriage contract 4-2-1580/1, Margaret Home
                                                                                      (ii)           Margaret Ogilvy (born c 1570)
                                                                                D: 2-4-1623, Dunnotar Castle.

George Keith

George Keith, usually identified as 5th Earl of Marischal (although several researchers refer to him as 4th Earl) was the founder of Marischal College in Aberdeen (1593). A still-extant armorial tablet at the college shows the Keith arms impaling those of his wife, Margaret Home (sister of the first Earl of Home); the shield has been photographed by the Heraldry Society of Scotland (http://heraldry-scotland.com/copgal/displayimage.php?album=6&pos=80), which describes the Home arms as ‘Vert a lion rampant Argent’.

M14: HOME, Margaret                                  B: c 15-12-1565
                                                                                M: Marriage contract 4-2-1580/1, George Keith
                                                                                D: May, 1598
                                                                                Comments: Sister of Alexander Home, 6th Lord Home and 1st Earl of Home


F14: KENNEDY, Gilbert                                   B:
                                                                                M:           Margaret (or Katherine) Macdowall
                                                                                D: before 1615

                                                                                Gilbert Kennedy

The most detailed information currently available on the Earls of Cassilis and their families (back to Generation 28) is contained on http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/cassillis.htm;  this site lists Gilbert Kennedy and Margaret Macdowall as the parents of John Kennedy, the 6th earl of Cassilis, and records that Gilbert never became 5th Earl because he was the third son (the elder two being the heir, John – Treasurer of Scotland on 22-3-1598/9, and husband of Jean Fleming – and Hew, termed ‘Master of Cassilis’). Both of the elder brothers died without issue, and, although Gilbert (also termed ‘Master of Cassilis’) actually predeceased his elder brothers (the eldest son, John, who succeeded his father, died in 1615), his son (John, Generation 13) became the natural heir of his grandfather, Gilbert (the 4th earl), who had died in 1576, and, thus, became 6th Earl.

This current research accepts these findings, although several other readings of the data also bear mentioning. The comprehensive website ‘The Peerage’ (http://thepeerage.com/p2426.htm#i24255)  records Gilbert Kennedy as the brother, not the father, of the 6th Earl; Hew is recorded as the father of John, and Hew’s wife is, not Margaret Macdowall (daughter of Uchtred Macdowall, 13th of Garthland), but Katherine Macdowall (also daughter of Uchtred Macdowall, 13th of Garthland, and, later, wife of James Stewart, 1st Lord Ochiltree; no daughter ‘Margaret’ is recorded for Uchtred Macdowall in this interpretation of the data; however, an earlier Uchtred Macdowall – 10th of Garthland – had a daughter, Margaret, who became the wife of Sir John Vans).

There remains, therefore, some doubt about the accuracy of the entries for Generation 14 in the Kennedy family; however, the two theories converge in Generation 15, as both accept Gilbert Kennedy (4th earl of Cassilis) and Uchtred Macdowall (13th of Garthland) as the grandfathers of John Kennedy, 6th earl of Cassilis.

M14: MACDOWALL, Margaret (or Katherine)
                                                                                M:           Gilbert Kennedy
                                                                                Comments: first name often recorded as ‘Katherine’; she could also be
                                                                                the wife of Hew Kennedy, not Gilbert (see above entry).

F14: LAWRENCE, Thomas                              B:
                                                                                M:              Unknown

M14: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:              Thomas Lawrence

LAWSON, Wilfrid

F14: LAWSON, William                                   B: before 1589, Usworth, Durham.
                                                                                M: c 1630, Judith Bewley
                                                                                D: 1654, Isel (Isell), Cumberland
                                                                                Comments: purchased Hesket Hall in 1630, after his marriage.

M14: BEWLEY, Judith                                      B: c 1593
                                                                                M: c 1630, William Lawson
                                                                                Judith Bewley

Judith Bewley is the only daughter of William Bewley of Hesketh. She had two elder brothers (Richard, John) and a younger brother (Thomas). She may be the same Judith Bewley who married (as her second husband) John Brisco(e), who died in 1676, but this is not established.

Judith Bewley’s appearance is described in a 1903 review of her descendant’s genealogy book: “Sir Edmund Bewley….has now completed a volume of the history of his own family. The book is a good example of modern genealogical work. With its 158 pages of text, its six chart pedigrees, and its efficient indices …..Sir Edmund's book is adorned with a most interesting photogravure of the picture now at Brayton, of Judith Bewley, wife of William Lawson of Isell, whose husband bought Hesket of the last Bewley of the direct line. In high crowned hat, great ruff and wide sleeved bodice, this thin-lipped, thin-faced woman makes a portrait of an ancestress which calls up at once the long and low rooms and panelled walls of a northern hall” (The Ancestor; a quarterly review of county and family history, heraldry and antiquities, Vol 4, 1903, at http://www.archive.org/stream/ancestorquarterl04londuoft/ancestorquarterl04londuoft_djvu.txt)

 LIDDELL, Thomas

F14: LIDDELL (LYDDALL), Thomas               B:
                                                                                M:          Barbara (or Margaret) Strangways (Strangeways)
                                                                                D: 9-5-1577

                                                                                Thomas Liddell (Lyddall)

Thomas Liddell was Sheriff of Newcastle (1563) and Mayor of Newcastle (1572). His wife’s Christian name is a matter of some doubt; “one source says ‘Margaret, his widow, v. 1577, bur. 31 Oct 1604… Said in the Baronetage to marry Barbara, d. Richard Strangways’; another Baronetage account says Barbara, d. Richard Strangways, but in printed pedigree has Margaret Strangways” (http://www.thewebweavers.net/generations/pafn42.htm).

M14: STRANGWAYS (STRANGEWAYS), Barbara (or Margaret)                                    
B:                Ravensworth Castle, Durham 
                                                                       M:              Thomas Liddell (Lyddall)
Comments: there is some doubt over the first name of the wife of
Thomas Liddell (Lyddall): “Said in the Baronetage to marry Barbara, d.
Richard Strangways’; another Baronetage account says Barbara, d.
Richard Strangways, but in printed pedigree has Margaret Strangways”
(http://www.thewebweavers.net/generations/pafn42.htm).  While most researchers record ‘Barbara’, this present research will allow for both possibilities.


F14: LOWTHER, Sir John                                 B: 20-2-1605, Lowther Hall, Lowther, Westmorland
                                                                                M: (i)             Mary Fletcher
                                                                                      (ii)            Elizabeth Hare, daughter of Sir John Hare.
                                                                                D: 30-11-1675

                                                                                Sir John Lowther

Sir John Lowther -- lawyer, landowner, and politician -- attended the Inner Temple in 1621 and was called to the bar in 1630. He was elected (1628) Member of Parliament for Westmorland, together with his father (also John Lowther), and sat for just one year, as King Charles decided (1629) to rule without parliament for eleven years (he stood for election to both Parliaments on their resumption in1640, but was defeated on each occasion by Sir Philip Musgrave; however, he was eventually – in 1550 – re-elected as member for Westmorland in the Convention Parliament, having defeated Thomas Burton).  

In 1636, Sir John became recorder of Kendal. He was created a baronet in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia in around 1638. 

Sir John “was a commissioner of array for Cumberland and Westmorland in 1642. He was commissioned a colonel by the Royalists during the Civil War and was Governor of Brougham Castle until 1644. However, he claimed not to have borne arms against the Parliamentarians, and took the Covenant when their forces approached. He was recommended to continue as a justice of the peace for Westmorland (having sat on the bench since 1641) and was fined on relatively favorable terms. He did not continue as a justice or in the recordership of Kendal after 1648, during the Interregnum. After the Restoration, he held several county offices in the North, appearing in the commissions of the peace for Cumberland, Westmorland, and the North Riding of Yorkshire and receiving a deputy lieutenancy in Cumberland. From 1661 to 1662 he was Sheriff of Cumberland….. Moderately active during the Parliament, his one recorded speech was to oppose Charles Howard's bill for curbing the moss troopers, preferring older methods of keeping peace on the border. He did not again stand for Parliament, but returned to his activities in the North, where he actively expanded his estates (often at the expense of his neighbors) and prosecuted Quakers who sat in the House of Commons for Westmorland in 1628 and in 1660.” (Wikipedia)

Sir John married twice, having ten children by his first marriage (to Mary Fletcher) and another four by his second (to Elizabeth Hare). As his eldest son (John, recorded in Generation 13 as husband of Elizabeth Bellingham) predeceased him, he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his grandson (leaving an estate worth about £80,000). 

M14: FLETCHER, Mary                                    B: c 1604
                                                                                M:              Sir John Lowther
                                                                                Comments: daughter of Sir Richard Fletcher of Hutton


F14: MITFORD, Henry                                     B: 1543, Newcastle, Northumberland.
                                                                                M:              Barbarie (Barbara) Carr
                                                                                Comments: The Oxford Journals record Henry Mitford as Sheriff of
                                                                                Newcastle (1582-3) and Mayor (1584-5). Several mentions in the will of
                                                                                                                                            his father, Christopher (Generation 15)

M14: CARR, Barbarie (Barbara)                  B:
                                                                                M:              Henry Mitford
                                                                                Comments: recorded as ‘Barbara’ in the Oxford Journals, in which she is
                                                                                                                                            referred to as Henry Mitford’s widow.


F14: MUSGRAVE, Sir Edward                       B: c 1551
                                                                                M: c 1580, Aspatria, Eskdale (Cumberland), Catherine Penruddock
                                                                                D: 1597

                                                                                Sir Edward Musgrave 

“Sir Edward Musgrave….. married Catherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Penruddock of Exeter, in the county of Devon…. (he) was lord-lieutenant of the county of Cumberland, and custos rotulorum, and justice of oyer and terminer, and sat as judge, at Carlile.” (Arthur Collins, 1741, The English baronetage: containing a genealogical and historical account of all the English baronets, now existing, Vol. 4)

Sir Edward resided at Hayton Castle, Cumberland.

M14: PENRUDDOCK, Catherine                 B: c 1559
                                                                                M: c 1580, Aspatria, Eskdale (Cumberland), Sir Edward Musgrave


F14: PRESTON, George                                  B:
                                                                                M: (i)              Elizabeth Ashton (Assheton)
                                                                                      (ii)             Margaret Strickland
                                                                                D: 4-1640.

                                                                                George Preston

Heir to Holker Park Estates, and a great benefactor to the stately church of Cartmel, Lancashire (where the remains of his grandfather and father lay buried, and where he himself would be interred in 1640), George Preston is recorded as having “made an appointment for the apprenticing the poor people in Cartmel, and a foundation for filling several scholars for St. John’s College, Oxford” (Prestons of Great Britain, http://www.suddenlink.net/pages/fpreston/holker1.htm).

M14: ASHTON (ASSHETON), Elizabeth    B: 1575
                                                                                M:            George Preston
                                                                                Comments: one source records her name as ‘Eliza’. Her brother, Sir Ralph
                                                                                Assheton (1579 – 18-10-1644), married Dorothy Bellingham, daughter of
                                                                                James Bellingham and Agnes Curwen (Generation 15).


F14: SANDERSON, Henry                              B: c 1495, Newcastle
                                                                                M: c1540, Eleanor Chaytor
                                                                                D: 23-1-1549


Henry Sanderson

The will of Henry Sanderson is still extant, and is referred to in Durham Probate Records: pre-1858 original wills and inventories (16th century) at http://reed.dur.ac.uk/xtf/view?docId=ead/dpr/dpr1-1_16th.xml: DPRI/1/1549/S2, Henry Sanderson, merchant, of the Syde, towne of Newcastell upone Tynne [Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland] probably a member of the family of Sanderson of Brancepeth and Hedleyhope”.

M14: CHAYTOR, Eleanor                                B:
                                                                                M:            Henry Sanderson

SCOTT, Eupheme (Euphanie)

F14: SCOTT, Sir William                                   B: 1584/5, Bergen-op-zoom, Holland
                                                                                M:            Jean (Jane) Skene of Curriehill
                                                                                D: 9-9-1622, Bergen-op-zoom.
                                                                               Comments: director of Chancery

M14: SKENE, Jean (Jane)                              B: 1588, Fife, Scotland
                                                                                M:            Sir William Scott


F14: STRICKLAND, Sir Walter                     B: 1485
                                                            M: (i) 1512, Agnes Redman
                                                                                      (ii) c 1515, Catherine (Katherine) Nevill
                                                            D: 9-1-1527
                                                                                Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh

“Thornton-Bridge, in the parish of Brafferton, wapentake of Halikeld, and liberty of Richmondshire; 4 miles NE. of Boroughbridge…..came to the Stricklands, by the marriage of Sir Walter Strickland, Knight, with Catharine, daughter of Sir Ralph Nevile, descended from a Sir Ralph, a son of Ralph Lord Raby……The Stricklands forfeited Thornton-Bridge by being concerned in the rebellion of 1715.”
(Transcribed. by Colin Hinson, www.genuki.org.uk:8080/big/eng/YKS/NRY/Brafferton/, from documents published early 1820s).

Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh should not be confused with Walter Strickland of Boynton (also recorded in this generation), who is actually his grandson: the son of his daughter, Elizabeth (who occurs in Generation 15 as part of a different line). Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh and Catherine (Katherine) Nevill are, therefore, also recorded in Generation 16.

The champion Australian runner, Shirley Strickland, is a direct descendant of Sir Walter.

M14: NEVILL, Catherine (Katherine)       B: c 1501
                                                            M: (i) c 1515, Sir Walter Strickland
                                                                                      (ii)             Henry Burgham
                                                            D: after 1536
                                                                                Comments: a descendant of Edward III. One researcher cites a total of
                                                                                four marriages: following Sir Walter Strickland, Henry Borough (after
                                                                                September. 1526); Son Darcy (after 1529); and William Knyvett (before 3-


F14: STRICKLAND, Walter                             B: c 1554
                                                                                M:            Frances Wentworth
                                                                                D: 1635/6

                                                                                Walter Strickland of Boynton

The father of Walter Strickland, William Strickland (‘the Navigator’) accompanied Sebastian Cabot in his voyages to the New World; the fortune he amassed was, in the 1540s, invested in property: Hildenley, Newton, Wintringham and Boynton (where he rebuilt the house originally built by the Newport family). He “lived until 1598, when the property passed to his son, Walter (d.1636) (Foster, Pedigrees; Johnson, 'Boynton Hall I', pp.35-6)” (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/A2A/records.aspx?cat=050-ddcv265&cid=0#0).

Walter Strickland is not to be confused with Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh in this generation, who is actually his grandfather (mother’s father, since his parents were both Stricklands: his mother, Elizabeth Strickland, is the sister of Agnes Strickland, who occurs in Generation 13 as wife of Sir Thomas Curwen), after whom he is named, since he was born shortly before Sir Walter’s death (Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh, therefore, is also recorded in Generation 16 as part of this line).

M14: WENTWORTH, Frances                       B: 1561, Lillingstone, Lovell, Buckinghamshire.
                                                                                M:              Walter Strickland of Boynton
                                                                                D: c 1636

Generation 15

ABERNETHY, Elizabeth
ASTON, Sir Roger
BEWLEY, William
BOYNTON, Sir Francis
CURWEN, Sir Thomas
DOCWRA, Humphrey
DOUGLAS, Sir William
DUNBAR, Eupheme (Euphemia)
FLEMING, Eleanor
FLETCHER, Sir Richard
FRANKE, Margaret (Margery)
GERARD, Catherine (Katherine)
HAMILTON, Sir Thomas
HAY, Elizabeth
HERIOT, Elizabeth
HOGHTON, Sir Richard
HOME, Alexander
JACKSON, Unknown
KEITH, William
KENNEDY, Glibert
KER, Margaret

LAWSON, Gilfrid (Gylford)
LAYBURNE (de), Margaret
LINDSAY, Sir David
LYON, Margaret
LYON, John
MIDDLETON, Mabel Margaret
MITFORD, Christopher
NEWMAN, Thomas
PENNE, Thomas
PLACE, Dorothy
RUTHVEN, William
SCOTT, James
SEAMER, Unknown
SEMPILL (SEMPLE), Grizel (Grisel, Grace)
SKENE, Sir John
STEWART, Mary (Marjory)
STEWART, Dorothea
UPCHURCH, Annis (Ann, Agnes)
WARD(E), Anne
WARDLAW, Elizabeth
WEMYSS, Eupheme

ASHTON (ASSHETON), Elizabeth (Eliza)

F15: ASSHETON, Ralph                                   B: c 1550
                                                                                M: (i)               Anne Talbot, daughter of John Talbot
                                                                                       (ii)              Johanna (Joan) Radclyffe (Radcliffe)
                                                                                D: 8-5-1616

                                                                                Ralph Assheton of Great Lever

Having served as High Sheriff of the County of Lancashire (1593-4) under Queen Elizabeth I, Ralph Assheton IV died (May 8, 1616) “holding the manor of Great Lever, with messuages, water-mill, lands, and tithes in the place; other lands in Farnworth and neighbouring townships; the manor of Ladyhalgh in Anderton; the manor of Whalley, and lands there and in Yorkshire…..he had acquired further lands in Great Lever and the neighbourhood….he served as sheriff in 1593–4….a pedigree was recorded in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc), 45 (Townships: Great Lever, A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5 (1911), pp. 182-87. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=53026).

This same source records his wife, Johanna, as “daughter and coheir of Edward Radcliffe of Todmorden and granddaughter and co-heir of Thomas Radcliffe of Winmarleigh” (which is the interpretation followed in this research); however, Burke’s Peerage (1844) records her as widow of Edward and daughter of Thomas.

M15: RADCLYFFE (RADCLIFFE), Johanna   (Joan)
B: c 1554
                                                                                M:              Ralph Assheton

                                                             Johanna (Joan) Radclyffe (Radcliffe)

Johanna Radclyffe is usually recorded as the daughter of Edward Radclyffe of Todmorden and granddaughter (and co-heiress) of Thomas Radclyffe of Winmarleigh; however, Burke’s Peerage (1844) claims her as the widow of Edward Radclyffe of Todmorden, and the daughter (and co-heiress) of Thomas Radclyffe of Wymberseley.  She is also recorded as being “co-heiress through her mother of her kinsman, William Radclyffe of Wymbersley”.

A portrait of Johanna on a panel at Townley shows her as being “of a fair complexion and handsome”.
ASTON (ASHTON), Margaret

F15: ASTON, Sir Roger                                    B: c 1528
                                                                                M: (i)            Mary (Marjory) Stewart
                                                                                       (ii)           Cordelia Stanhope
                                                                                Comments: ‘Gentleman of bedchamber’ to James VI of Scotland (who
                                                                                                                                                                ruled England as James I)

M15: STEWART, Mary (Marjory)                B: c 1558 (though recorded as early as 1530)
                                                                                M:              Sir Roger Aston
                                                                                Comments: http://www.mcadamshistory.com/baron.htmlallows only the
                                                                                first name ‘Marjory’, recording Mary Stewart as her sister, and wife of Sir
                                                                                                                                                                George Crawford of Lifnorris.


F15: BELLINGHAM, James                            B: 1560
M:             Agnes Curwen


James Bellingham

James Bellingham was the second son of Alan Bellingham (Generation 16), and inherited his father’s estate only because the eldest son, Thomas, died (1580) without a legitimate male heir; Kirkby in Kendale: 1572-1650: Records relating to the Barony of Kendale: volume 1 (1923), pp. 92-119. (URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=49277) records an inquest, “taken at Appulbie 8 Oct., 22 Elizth (1580)”, which refers to Thomas, who, “by virtue of the last will of Alan Bellingham, esq. decd his late father, was seised in his demesne as of fee tail, viz. to himself and the heirs male of his body, inter alia of the manors of Kendall, Crostwhayte and Lythe and divers messuages, cottages, lands & tenemts in them….Thomas died 5 August last (1580) without any heir male of his body lawfully begotten and James Bellingham is brother and heir of the said Thomas and is aged 20 years, 15 weeks, 3 days now”.

The same source reports that, between 1590 and 1600, “Mr. James Bellingham, in his answer to a bill of complaint brought against him for not suffering the mayor of Kendal to go before him with his mace through Kirkland, defended his action because Kirkland was no part of the Queen’s Majesty’s town of Kirkby Kendal, but an estate of the late dissolved monastery of St. Mary of York and that he, Bellingham, was ‘Quarter Baron of Kendal, &c.’ The answer was made by James Bellingham, esq., Martin Gilpin, William Collinson and William Ellerbie”.
 M15: CURWEN, Agnes                                  B: c 1554
                                                                                M:              James Bellingham
                                                                                Comments: Daughter of Sir Henry Curwen (who, as father of Thomas Curwen -- Agnes’s half-sister -- is included in Generation 12) and first wife, Mary Fairfax, whose genealogical line continues from Generation 16.


F15: BELLINGHAM, Sir Roger                       B: c 1450
                                                                                M: c 1476, Mabel Margaret Middleton, Burnsheade.
                                                                                 D: 18-7-1533 in Bellingham, Northumberland.
                                                                       Sir Roger Bellingham

There exists in the records considerable confusion regarding the dates of birth and death of Sir Roger Bellingham, and his own uncle (younger brother of Sir Henry Bellingham), who is recorded as either Sir Robert or Sir Roger. Their dates of birth must have been very close (both c 1450), and each is recorded as having the same date of death (18-07-1533). Further, the wife of each is recorded as ‘Margaret’: Margaret Aske (daughter of Robert Aske) in the case of Sir Roger/Robert (third son of Sir Robert Bellingham and Elizabeth Tunstall), and Mabel Margaret Middleton (daughter of Thomas Middleton) in that of Sir Roger, son of Henry (first son of Sir Robert Bellingham and Elizabeth Tunstall, and, therefore, Sir Roger/Robert’s elser brother).

The best research would appear to place the death of Sir Roger in 1540, which would mean that the graves and inscription in the Bellingham Chapel at the Kendal Parish Church (Northumberland) – built by a Sir Roger Bellingham, and presently the Memorial Chapel of the Border regiment – belong not to him, but to his uncle (although some researchers attribute the inscription to the nephew). The restored (during the seventeenth century, the original brasses having been stolen, it is reported, by Cromwell’s soldiers) epitaph, quoted here for interest only, reads: “Hereunder lyeth Sir Roger Bellingham, Knt (which of his own proper costs and charges builded the chapel of our Lady within this church of Kendall) and of Margaret, his wife, daur. of Sir Robert Aske, Knight, and of Elizabeth, his wife, daur. to the Lord John Clifford, now created Earl of Cumberland, which Sir Roger dyed the 18th day of July, A.D. 1533, and the sd Margaret dyed the –th day of --, A.D. 15--, whose souls Jhesu pardon.”
M15: MIDDLETON, Mabel Margaret        B: c 1456, Middleton Hall, Westmorland.
                                                                                M:  c 1476, Sir Roger Bellingham
                                                                                D:               Buried in Bellingham Chapel, Kendal.

BEWLEY, Judith

F15: BEWLEY, William                                      B:
                                                                                M:            Joan Unknown

                                                                                William Bewley

The first official reference to William Bewley is found in a document drafted in 1572: in that year, Thomas Bewley (William’s father) sold a portion of the lands of Brayton to James Cowdell, and he and his wife Marion, as well as his son and heir apparent, William Bewley, and his wife Joan, joined in a fine that was then levied to carry out the sale. Thomas Bewley was also the owner of some customary freeholds, also at Brayton, in the manor of Aspatria, and, either in 1572 or some short time afterwards, he transferred his interest in the small manor of Brayton to his son William, retaining, however, the lands of customary tenure above mentioned. He seems also to have had a house at Brayton held in fee under the Crown.

In a survey of the Percy estates, dated May 2, 20 Elizabeth (1578), taken by a Court of Survey under a Commission from Henry, 8th Earl of Northumberland, the following entries (quoted from http://www.thomasbewley.com/Bewleys-of-Cumberland/PDF/bewleys_complete_text.pdf) appear in the portion dealing with the manor of Aspatria: “Freeholders in the Manor of Aspatria: ‘William Bewley holdeth Brayton by fealty only, sometime the lands of the Bishop of Carliol’, and rendereth by the year Nil. Tenants at will in the Manor of Aspatria: ‘No. 86.Thomas Bewley, gent., holdeth at Brayton eight cottages and houses and 14 acres of the Lord’s waste improved there and rendereth by the year vj8’.”

On the death of Thomas, sometime after 1578, William entered into possesion of all his lands within the manors of Caldbeck and Aspatria. He did not long survive his father, dying on 7-4-1589; on February 3, 32 Elizabeth (1590), an inquisition post mortem was taken at Penrith, which found as follows:“That William Bewley, gentleman, had lands and tenements in Hesket held of Philip Lord Wharton as of his manor of Caldbeck-Under-Fell by knight-service and suit of Court at his said manor from three weeks to three weeks, and free rent of 3S 4d yearly, paid at the feasts of Pentecost and St. Martin in winter by equal portions, and they are worth by the year clear 14. 8. The lands and tenements in Braiton are held of Henry Earl of Northumberland, as of his manor of Aspatrick (by what services the jurors know not), and are worth by the year clear j6 13. 4. William Bewley was seised in fee of a capital messuage and tenement in Hesket, and in divers acres of land, meadow and pasture to the same messuage belonging, one water mill, one other messuage, and one cottage in Hesket: also a capital messuage in Braiton. William Bewley died 7th April last, and Richard Bewley his son and heir is under age, viz: sixteen years and a quarter.”

At the time of his death, William Bewley was residing at Hesket (Hesketh) Hall; he had three sons (Richard – his heir, who sold (1597) all his interest in the Brayton estate to Thomas Salkeld, a member of a well-known family resident at that time in the parish of Aspatria John, and Thomas) and one daughter (Judith, Generation 14).
M15: UNKNOWN, Joan                                 B:
                                                                                M:              William Bewley

BLAIR, Alexander

F15: BLAIR, John                                               B: c 1547, Kilbirnie
                                                                                M:  c 11-5-1565, Grizel (Grisel, Grace) Sempill (Semple)
                                                                                D: 1609, KIlbirnie
Comments: Researcher Jared Olar
06/0835036921, 17-6-1996) records that the eldest son (also named John
Blair) of John Blair and Grisel Semple, died in the same year as his father.
John Burke (A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of
Great Britain, Vol 4, 1838) states that son John predeceased his father.

M15: SEMPILL (SEMPLE), Grizel (Grisel, Grace)
B: 1551, Blair, Ayrshire, Scotland
                                                                                M:  c 11-5-1565, John Blair
                                                                                D: 8-2-1572, Blair, Ayrshire.
                                                                                Comments: sister of Dorothy (Mary) Sempill, recorded in Generation 16
                                                                                as wife of Sir Robert Montgomery, 6th of Skelmorly.

BOYNTON, Dorothy

F15: BOYNTON, Sir Francis                            B: c 1565
                                                                                M:              Dorothy Place
                                                                                D: before 9-4-1617. Buried  9-4-1617, Barmston, Yorkshire.  

Sir Francis Boynton

Sir Francis Boynton was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in the 38th year of Elizabeth I (1596), and was mentioned the following year as leasing the ‘twenty-foot bank’ at Barmston, where he subsequently built (1598) the middle part of the late mansion, in the hall of which were his arms impaling those of Place, and another shield supported by two goats.

 Sir Francis was one of the King’s Council in the North in 1602, and was knighted (17-4-1603) at York, when King James passed through that city on his way from Scotland to the throne (there is a tradition that King James spent a night at the seat of Sir Francis, Burton Agnes Hall, and that the arms on the gateway commemorate this event). 

Sir Francis married Dorothy Place (daughter of Christopher Place and Alice Tempest, who, on the death of her first husband, married Walter Strickland -- brother of Elizabeth Strickland (Generation 15) and Agnes Strickland (Generation 13) --, and, on his death,  Sir Francis’s father – that is, her daughter’s father-in-law); while the date of this marriage is unknown, it is likely to have coincided with the signing of a bond by Sir Francis to perform covenants with Dame Alice Boynton (April 9, 1582); in a subsequent document (September 6, 1589), Sir Francis releases ‘his’ brother-in-law, Thomas Strickland, which proves that he was already the husband of Dorothy Place (Thomas Strickland’s step-sister following Alice’s second marriage). Sir Francis and Dorothy had four children, two of whom died in infancy (the only son to survive to adulthood was Matthew, born 1591).

Sir Francis gained possession (1591) of the ‘Rectory and Church of Byrlington, with all its rights. Afterwards (c 1601), Sir Francis purchased, from Anthony Foster (‘proctor’ to the incumbent of Roxby) property which formed part of the glebe in Roxby belonging to the parish of Hinderwell. By the time of his death (1617) the family had accumulated the manors of Barmston, Roxby, Acklam, Rudston, as well as lands in Boynton.
In his will (made 27th April, 1614, and proved 29th May, 1617), Sir Francis expressed the desire to be buried at Barmston, whenever it pleased God to call him, and also that “there might not be too sumptuous cost made at his funeral”. He left money to the poor of Barmston, Rudstone, Bridlington, Croft (where he appears to have sometimes resided), Lisset, Ulrome, Fraisthorpe, Roxby, Acklam and Middleton Tyas. To his wife he left her (own) chamber as it should be furnished at the time of his death, and all his apparel and jewels, besides legacies to his son and daughter Dorothy (Generation 14), wife of James Bellingham. 

Three original documents (cited on http://newsarch.rootsweb.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2005-01/1105295168) refer to Francis Boynton. The first, HSP 16:84, pedigree of Boynton [3], states: “record of a Lease for 21 years at £6.10s. rent, dated 14 Apr. 1597: ‘Francis Boynton of Barmstone esq. to William Wattson “of the Watter Mylne in the sayd countye” yeoman property house, water mill and Water Mylne Close in Barmstone’ - A2A, East Riding of Yorkshire Archives and Records Service: Chichester-Constable Family [DDCC/1 - DDCC/50], DDCC/3/26[1]”. The second, an ‘assignment dated 23 Jan. 1589/90’ states: “Roger Rante and Peter Whetcombe of London gents. to Francis Boynton of Barmeston esq. property messuage and 2 bovates late in tenure of Margaret Boynton widow and parcel of Nunkeeling Priory Recites a grant to them by Letters Patent (22 Jan. 1589/90) - A2A, East Riding of Yorkshire Archives and Records Service: Chichester-Constable Family [DDCC/1 - DDCC/50], DDCC/3/27[1]”. The final, brief entry states: “Sir F Boynton Knt instituted Martin Briggs M.A. as
rector of Barmston, 1612 [HSP 16:84, pedigree of Boynton 5]”

 M15: PLACE, Dorothy                                    B:
                                                                                M:             Sir Francis Boynton
                                                                                D:  before 12-1632. Buried 12-2-1632, Barmston, Yorkshire.
                                                                                Dorothy Place

The youngest of five daughters (and co-heirs) of Christopher Place and his wife, Alice Tempest (who would, for her third husband, marry her daughter’s father-in-law, Sir Thomas Boynton), Dorothy Place was still a minor when her father died. Her mother’s second marriage was to Walter Strickland, and, by articles of agreement (October 5, in 1566, the 8th year of Queen Elizabeth I) between Walter and William Wicklife, of York (who had purchased the wardships and marriages of the girls), arrangements were made for Dorothy to receive the profits of certain lead mines in Skelton. Walter Strickland subsequently bought from William Wicklife, first, the wardship of Dorothy, and, second (on May 20, 1568), the wardship of the fourth daughter and co-heir, Isabel.


F15: CARNEGIE, David                                    B:
                                                                                M: (i)                     Elizabeth Ramsay
                                                                                    (ii) 4-10-1568, Eupheme Wemyss
                                                                                    (iii)  1594, Janet Henrison
                                                                                D: 19-4-1598

                                                                                 David Carnegie of Colluthie and Kinnaird
…a wise, peaceable, and sober man, in good credit and estimation with the king, and taken into his Privy Council for his skill and knowledge in civil affairs,” is how the Right Honorable David Carnegie of Colluthie and Kinnaird was described by Archbishop Spottiswood in his History of the Church (quoted in William Fraser’s History of the Carnegies, Earls of Southesk, and of their Kindred, Vol 1, at http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/william-fraser/history-of-the-carnegies-earls-of-southesk-and-of-their-kindred-volume-1-sar/page-17-history-of-the-carnegies-earls-of-southesk-and-of-their-kindred-volume-1-sar.shtml).
William Fraser (op. cit.) provides the following (edited) biography of David Carnegie:

On the death of Sir John Carnegie of Kinnaird without male issue, in the year 1595, his next brother, Mr. David Carnegie of Colluthie, succeeded to Kinnaird.

Having previously been provided by his father to the estate of Panbride in the county of Forfar, he was for some time designated Mr. David Carnegie of Panbride. After his marriage with Elizabeth Ramsay, he was designated of Colluthie; and under this designation he appears in most of the public transactions in which he was engaged. As he only enjoyed the estate of Kinnaird for about three years, the designation of Colluthie adhered to him until his death…..Mr. David Carnegie was bred to the law, took a prominent part in the civic business of Scotland, and was appointed on many commissions by King James VI. In the year 1578, along with several noblemen…. Mr. David Carnegie was appointed one of the commissioners on the laws. In the year 1587 he was appointed a commissioner for establishing a universal met, measure, and weight, and also for setting of the order of the taxation on all estates. In the year 1592 he was appointed one of the commissioners to make and conclude the assignations of the minister's stipends….In the following year he was appointed one of the commissioners …. to hear the petition of the Earls of Angus, Huntlie, and Errol, to be put on trial for their alleged conspiracy; and for the taxation of one hundred thousand pounds granted to the King in anticipation of the Queen's confinement, and the great expense of the birth and baptism. From that year onwards to within a short tune of his death, he was a commissioner under various Acts of Convention and Parliament.

He was made a Privy Councillor in the year 1592, under an Act of Parliament; and in the following year another Act was passed….. committing the daily remembrance, care, and direction, furtherance of the execution and administration of the weekly affairs concerning his Highness' estate and realm, to the Duke of Lennox and other Councillors, of whom Mr. David Carnegie of Colluthie was one….Mr. David Carnegie was also much employed in the affairs of the Church from the year 1580 and onwards….. (he) was one of the King's Commissioners to the
General Assembly held at Edinburgh on 24th April 1583.

For the encouragement of learning in the county with which he was so closely connected, Mr. David Carnegie founded a bursary in the College of St. Leonard's in St. Andrews; and on 28th July 1592 he obtained a Crown charter of the patronage of the bursary, and of the lands of Middle Drummies and Greenden, in the county of Forfar, for the bursar's support.

In the beginning of the year 1596, the Laird of Kinnaird was appointed one of the extraordinary commissioners of the Exchequer, better known as Octavians….In September of the same year, he attended a Convention at Linlithgow, held by the desire of James VI, as appears from a letter from his brother Robert. David Carnegie only survived the Convention at Linlithgow about two years, having died on the 19th of April 1598.”

M15: WEMYSS, Eupheme                             B:
M: 4-10-1568, David Carnegie
                                                                                D: 16-11-1593

CARR, Barbarie (Barbara)

F15: UNKNOWN                                               B:
                                                                                M:                Unknown

M15: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:                Unknown

CHAYTOR, Eleanor

F15: CHAYTOR, Piers                                       B: c 1480
                                                                                M:              Unknown
                                                                                Comments: sheriff of Newcastle

M15: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:             Piers Chaytor


F15: CHOLMLEY, Henry                                  B:
                                                                                M:              Margaret Babthorpe
                                                                                D: 1616
                                                                                Henry Cholmley

Henry was the half-brother of his father’s heir, Francis Cholmley, who built the Abbey House at Whitby; when Francis died without children (his wife, the daughter of Ranulph Bulmer, was described as a woman of haughty spirit who had placed her own initial in front of that of her husband on the porch of the new Abbey Hall), Henry, by entail of his father’s will, inherited all his estates.

Henry married Margaret Babthorpe, a Catholic who was rumoured to have harboured priests at Abbey Hall; however, the pair became “zealous Protestants”, and Henry was knighted when James I succeeded to the English throne in 1603.

M15: BABTHORPE, Margaret                       B:
                                                                                M:               Henry Cholmley
                                                                                D: 1628
                                                                                Comments: originally a Catholic who had been rumoured to have
harboured priests, Margaret Babthorpe became a zealous Protestant who saw her husband knighted by James I.

COCHRANE, Elizabeth

F15: COCHRANE, William                               B: c 1540
                                                                                M:             Margaret Montgomery
                                                                                D: c 1593

                                                                                William Cochrane

“A man of great sagacity, economy, and prudence (who)greatly adorned and beautified the ancient feat of the family of Cochrane with large plantations and buildings” (‘Cochrane Earl of Dundonald’, http://www.clancochrane.org/DundonaldLineage.htm), William Cochrane obtained charters “under the great seal from Mary, of the lands and barony of Cochrane, and several others, inter 1558 et 1560……He married Margaret, daughter of the Sir Robert Montgomery of Skelmorly, in the shire of Ayr, by Mary his wife, daughter of the lord Robert Semple, by whom he had three daughters” (op. cit).

No information exists regarding the two eldest daughters; nor, it seems, did the marriage of William and Margaret produce a male heir. For reasons unknown, the youngest daughter, Elizabeth (Generation 14), was William’s sole heiress, he having “made a resignation and entail of his whole estate, in favors of his daughter, Elizabeth, and the heirs-male of her body, whom failing, to several others particularly specified in the deed of entail, which is dated, anno 1593, any person to succeeding being obligated to carry the name and arms of Cochrane” (op. cit)

M15: MONTGOMERY, Margaret                B:
M:             William Cochrane
Comments: her date of death given as 15-8-1594 at
ine.ged (but name recorded as ‘Elizabeth’)

CURWEN, Sir Christopher

F15: CURWEN, Sir Thomas                            B: c 1450
                                                                                M: (i)             Isabel Percy             
      (ii)           Anne Huddleston
                                                                                D: 1522
                                                                                Comments: Made a Knight of the Bath on the marriage of Prince Arthur,
                                                                                17-11-1501. Also recorded in Generation 20 as father of Lucy Curwen,
                                                                                sister of Sir Christopher Curwen and wife of Sir John Lowther.
M15: HUDDLESTON, Anne                           B:
                                                            M:               Sir Thomas Curwen
                                                                                Comments: Also recorded in Generation 20 as mother of Lucy Curwen,
sister of Sir Christopher and wife of Sir John Lowther. In addition, Anne is
                                                                                sister of Sir Richard Huddleston (died 1485), recorded in Generation 19 as
                                                                                                                                                                husband of Margaret Neville.

DOCWRA, Francis

F15: DOCWRA, Humphrey                            B: 1525, Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire
                                                                                M: c 1560, Johan (Ann) Unknown
                                                                                D: before 27-6-1564 (date of burial), Fen Ditton.

Humphrey Docwra

The following information on the life of Humphrey Docwra is provided by Odd Ottesen (26-10-2110, at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DOCWRA/2001-10/1004093521): “He seems to have lived in Fulbourn, shortly south-east of Fen Ditton, because here - at St Vigor in Fulbourn - Humphrey Docwra had two children baptized in the 1550s, according to the IGI (Thomas and Elizabeth). And as ‘Humphrey Docwra’ is a very seldom name, I suppose it is the same man. Perhaps he later moved to Fen Ditton. Humphrey Dockwraye, gentleman, was involved concerning a lease of the manor of Ditton Hall, by Thomas Lord Vaux of Harrowden. (procat) The GT says that Humphrey Docwra had a son Francis and two sons and two daughters. The VH has no informations about Humphrey, except stating he was son of John Docwra. The VC calls him Humphrey Docwra of Fen Ditton and mentions his wife Ann and their son Thomas.”

Humphrey Docwra was the grand-nephew of Sir Thomas Docwra, Grand Prior of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem.
M15: UNKNOWN, Johan (Ann)                                      B: c 1530
                                                                                                    M: c 1560, Humphrey Docwra
                                                                                                    D: before 27-6-1565, Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire


F15: DOUGLAS, Sir William                           B:
                                                                                M: 26-11-1554, Agnes Leslie (contract signed 19-9-1554)
                                                                                D: 1606

                                                                            Sir William Douglas, Earl of Morton.

Designated by researchers as either the 5th or the 6th Earl of Morton, Sir William Douglas received the charter for the earldom on July 20,
1589, following the death, in 1588, of his cousin, Archibald Douglas, the 5th Earl (the earldom of Morton had been forfeited in 1581 
following the execution and attainder of James Douglas, 4th  Earl of Morton, for being one of the murderers of Henry Stuart (Lord 
Darnley); it was then granted to a grandson of the 3rd Earl, John Maxwell (7th Lord Maxwell), before being eventually returned to the 
Douglas family in 1586). 
Sir William had close relations with Scottish royalty: his mother was Margaret Erskine, a former mistress of King James V of Scotland; his 
half-brother from his mother’s liaison with the king was James Stewart, Earl of Moray (Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his 
assassination in January 1570); and his cousin, James Douglas (see above) was yet another Regent of Scotland. 
Sir William and his wife, Agnes Leslie, married 26-11-1554 (the contract having been made 19-8-1554), after which they resided (with his 
widowed mother) at Lochleven Castle, a fortress situated on an island in the middle of the loch. As Laird of Lochleven, Sir William was the 
custodian of Mary, Queen of Scots, during her captivity (from June, 1567, until her escape on May 2, 1568). Lady Agnes was Queen Mary’s
chief female companion throughout her imprisonment, and it was while Agnes was recovering from childbirth (during which time Mary 
found herself less-closely guarded) that the queen successfully escaped from Lochleven, with the aid of Sir William’s brother, George, and 
an orphaned cousin (also William Douglas) who also lived at the castle (when Sir William learned of his royal captive’s escape, he was, 
reportedly, so distressed that he attempted to stab himself with his own dagger).
Sir William and Agnes had eleven children, including seven daughters, who were known, on account of their great beauty, as ‘the Pearls 
of Lochleven’. Their first daughter, Christian, married Lawrence Oliphant, Master of Oliphant, who accompanied their son, Robert 
(Generation 14), on his 1584 voyage when both were captured by pirates (resulting in a letter (20-1-1601) being sent from Queen 
Elizabeth I to the of Ottoman sultan, Mahomet Chan, requesting their release).

M15: LESLIE, Agnes                                         B: after 1541
                                                                                M: 26-11-1554, William Douglas (contract 19-8-1554)
                                                                                D: c 1606

Agnes Leslie

A direct descendant of King James II in her maternal line (her mother being Margaret Crichton, whom her father, George Leslie, 4th Earl of Rothes and Ambassador to Denmark, married twice), Agnes Leslie was the chief female companion of Mary, Queen of Scots, during her imprisonment at Locheleven Castle from June, 1567, to May 2, 1568; it was while Agnes was recovering from the birth of and, therefore, for this short time, allowed Mary a greater degree of privacy, that the Queen made her escape from the castle (Agnes’s husband, William Douglas, Mary’s official custodian, was so distressed by this outcome that he attempted suicide).

Agnes had three sisters, and two elder brothers (William Rothes and Norman Leslie, Master of Rothes) whose rights of inheritance were forfeited as a result of both having been implicated in the murder (1546) of Cardinal Beaton (her father was also tried for the same crime, but acquitted). She also had several half-siblings, including Andrew Leslie, 5th Earl of Rothes (her father’s son by his marriage to Agnes Somerville).

In 1586, the earldom of Morton, which had previously (1581) been forfeited following the execution and attainder of the 4th Earl of Morton (for being one of the murderers of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley) returned to the Douglas family. Two years later, upon the death of Archibald Douglas (5th Earl of Morton), Sir William became 6th Earl of Morton, receiving the charter for the earldom on 20-7-1589;  from that date, Agnes Leslie was styled ‘Countess of Morton’.


F15: FAIRCHYLD (FAIRCHILD), Richard     B: c 1544
                                                                                M: (i) 21-11-1563, Orwell, Cambridgeshire, Amy Woodward.
       (ii) 16-7-1572, Orwell, Cambridgeshire, Margery Hickes (Hicks)
                                                                                D: 8-1-1611
                                                                                Comments: in addition to William (Generation 14), Richard Fairchyld 
                                                                                (Fairchild) and Margery Hickes (Hicks) were parents of Alexander (married
                                                                                Agnes Holder); Alice (married Richard Baylie); Frances (married Edward

M15: HICKES (HICKS), Margery                  B:
                                                                                M: 16-7-1572, Richard Fairchyld (Fairchild)


F15: FLETCHER, Sir Richard                            B: c 1569
                                                                                M: (i)             Unknown Richmond
      (ii) 17-2-1599, Barbara Crakanthorp (Crackenthorpe)
                                                                                D: 23-3-1637
Sir Richard Fletcher

Termed, first, ‘of Cockermouth’, Sir Richard Fletcher (knighted by James I) acquired Hutton-in-the-Forest (Penrith, Cumbria) from the de Hoton family in 1605 (after which he was also ‘of Hutton’; soon afterwards,  he began the conversion of the fortified building into a country house. A merchant who had ‘acquired considerable wealth by commerce’, he also purchased ‘divers other great estates’.

Sir Richard wasSheriff of Cumberland in 1617. His only son (and heir) was Henry Fletcher; however, he had three children by his first marriage (all of whom died unmarried), and five daughters (Bridget; Isabel; Mary, Generation 14; Catherine; and Winifred) by his second marriage, to Barbara Crakanthorpe (Crackenthorpe).

                                                                                B: 3-2-1581
                                                                                M:              Sir Richard Fletcher
                                                                                Comments: ‘of New Biggen’.

FOULIS, Margaret

F15: FOULIS, James                                         B:              living in Edinburghshire in 1594.
                                                                                M:             Agnes Heriot
                                                                                Comments: ‘of Colinton’. Referred to by Joseph Foster (Members of
                                                                                Parliament of Scotland) as ‘a minor baron’. John Burke gives the
                                                                                derivation of ‘Foulis’ as being the armorial bearing of three leaves, which
                                                                                is ‘feuilles’ in French. James Foulis and Agnes Heriot had four sons, the
                                                                                eldest of which (Sir James Foulis) succeeded his father.

M15: HERIOT, Agnes                                       B:
                                                                                M:             James Foulis of Colinton
                                                                                D: 5-8-1593
                                                                                Comments: heiress of Lumphoy. Has been recorded as daughter of James
                                                                                Heriot, Laird of Trabroun; this has been found to be incorrect (however,
Elizabeth Heriot, wife of Thomas Hamilton -- recorded in this generation –
 is James’s daughter).


F15: GRAHAM, John                                       B: 1548
                                                                                M:  24-8-1563, Jean Drummond
                                                                                D: 9-11-1608

                                                                                John Graham

On the subject of John Graham -- 3rd Earl of Montrose and great-grandson of James IV of Scotland -- George Wishart, author of The Memoirs of James, Marquis of Montrose, 1639-1650, recalls that “almost in our own memory was advanced to the highest offices, and discharged them with the greatest success. He was Lord Chancellor of Scotland when King James VI., of blessed memory, succeeded to the crown of England, and was made his Lord High Commissioner in Scotland, and enjoyed that highest honour bestowed on a subject, with the love and affection of both king and people, till his death.” John Graham also held the position of Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from 1599 (the year he was made Lord Chancellor) to 1604.

John Graham (whose wife, Jean Drummond, was his second cousin: her grandmother was Elizabeth Graham, daughter of the 1st Earl of Montrose) succeded his grandfather, William Graham (Generation 17), the Second Earl of Montrose. John’s father, Robert Graham, did not succeed as he predeceased his father, William, by some twenty-four years (indeed, it would appear from the records that Robert died as early as 1547, the year before his son, John, was born).

M15: DRUMMOND, Jean                              B:
                                                                                M: 24-8-1563, John Graham, 3rd Earl of Montrose.
                    Comments: Second cousin of her husband; her date of death is often
                    recorded as March, 1567/8; this, however, does not accord with the
                    accepted date of birth of her son, John Graham (1573), and John’s sister,
                                                                                                    Lilias, who was born 1570.

HAMILTON, Sir Thomas

F15: HAMILTON, Sir Thomas                        B:
                                                                                M: (i) 1558, at Edinburgh (Midlothian), Elizabeth Heriot
                                                                                      (ii)             Elizabeth Murray
                                                                                D: before 1612
                                                                                Sir Thomas Hamilton, 3rd of Preistfield

Referred to as ‘Sir Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield’ (a title he resigned, in 1608, in favour of his son), Sir Thomas was a minor at the death 
of his father in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, but -- as was customary when the head of a family fell in battle -- was at once retoured heir to 
his father. While his date of birth is not known, he must have reached his majority by 1561, as in that year he was made a burgess of 
Edinburgh in right of his father.
In 1568, Sir Thomas was in Paris, probably studying law; by 1571 he was in Scotland, and “had ranged himself on the Queen's side in the 
political divisions of the day. Although he does not appear to have taken a very prominent part in public affairs, he was outlawed in 1572 
along with the Earl of Arran and others …. he was included in the pacification of the following year. He was also included in the Act of 
Restoration following on the return of the Hamiltons and the 'banished lords' in 1585. It was not till 1603 that he had any actual 
appointment in the public service; in that year he was appointed one of the commissioners for managing the Queen's property in 
Scotland, and on 29 May 1607 he was raised to the Bench of the Court of Session, under the title of Lord Priestfield. On 12 January 1608 
he was admitted a member of the Privy Council, and held that position till the reconstruction of the body in 1610. His judgeship did not 
last long, as he resigned in 1608…..He married, first, in 1558, Elizabeth, daughter of James Heriot of Trabroun, who apparently did not 
survive long; and, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Andrew Murray of Blackbarony, and widow of James Borthwick of Newbyres.”
(James Balfour Paul, The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and
genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom, at 
M15: HERIOT, Elizabeth                                 B: c 1540
                                                                                M: 1558, Sir Thomas Hamilton, 3rd of Priestfield
                                                                                Comments: It is reported that she did not live long after her marriage.

HOGHTON, Sir Gilbert

F15: HOGHTON, Sir Richard                          B: 26-8-1570, Hoghton Tower, Preston, Lancashire.
                                                                                M:              Catherine (Katherine) Gerard
                                                                                D: 12-11-1630

                                                                                Sir Richard Hoghton
Hoghton Tower, the home of Sir Richard Hoghton (and the ancestral home of the de Hoghton family since the Norman Conquest), and the base for the infamous ‘gunpowder plot’, is “one of the most dramatic-looking houses in the North of England”: a large fortified house, on a hilltop six miles east of Preston on the road to Blackburn, built around a medieval pele tower, which originally stood between the inner and outer courtyards of the present house. Construction was completed by Sir Richard’s uncle (his father Thomas’s half-brother, also Thomas) in 1565 (it still contains the King’s Bedchamber, Audience Chamber, Ballroom and other staterooms used by the King, the Duke of Buckingham and other nobles, and underground passages with dungeons, wine cellar and stone cells), who lived in it only four years before being forced to flee (since he was a recusant: one of the Roman Catholics in England who incurred legal and social penalties in the 16th century and afterward for refusing to attend services of the Church of England) to the Low Countries, where he died, leaving his nephew, Sir Richard (who held more politically-correct views) to take up residence at Hoghton Tower. 

Sir Richard earned the favour of James I, who made him a baronet (1611). The following year, in August, the notorious trial of the Pendle and Samlesbury Witches (eight women and two men from the Pendle district and seven women and two men from Samlesbury and Windle, ranging in age from nine to eighty) was held  at Lancaster Castle (James being such a strong believer in witchcraft that an Act was passed which imposed the death penalty “for making a covenant with an evil spirit, using a corpse for magic, hurting life or limb, procuring love, or injuring cattle by means of charms”); Sir Richard Hoghton, along with Lord Gerard (probably his brother-in-law) was selected to assist the judges, Judge Bromley (presiding) and Judge Altham (the Prosecutor was the High Sheriff of Lancashire, Roger Nowell of Read Hall, and the Clerk of the Court was Thomas Potts of London. At the end of the three-day assize, ten of the defendants – allowed neither defence counsel nor witnesses to testify on their behalf – were found guilty of witchcraft, sentenced to death, and hanged on the moor above the town, and one -- Margaret Pearson, the Padiham Witch -- was sentenced to be pilloried on four consecutive market days in Padiham, Clitheroe, Whalley and Lancaster, and then to serve one year in prison).  

The most notable event in the life of Sir Richard Hoghton occurred in August 1617, when King James paid a three-day visit to Hoghton Tower (where, previously, William Shakespeare had started his working life as a tutor; Shakespeare stayed with the Hoghtons and their neighbours until May 15, 1581, when he was 17). While some nobles, fearful of the expense a royal visit entailed, were known to burn down part of their manor in order to forestall the visit (reasoning that the cost of repairs was less than the cost of entertaining royalty), Sir Richard laid out the red carpet for the entire length of the half-mile avenue leading to the house. 

The Banqueting Hall, with its Minstrel’s Gallery, is where James, impressed with the loin of beef served (and equally affected by the wine) dubbed the beef ‘Sir Loin’; to commemorate the event the local pub was renamed ‘The Sirloin’, and still goes by that name today. On the Sunday of the King’s stay at Hoghton Tower he received a petition (signed principally by the Lancashire peasants, tradespeople and servants, lamenting that they were debarred from lawful recreations upon Sunday, after evening prayers, and upon holy days), which was answered by proclamation which formed the basis of The Book of Sports issued (1618) to all bishops, to be read and published in all parish churches (the subsequent re-issue of The Book of Sports by Charles I early in his reign -- antagonising clergy and Parliament -- was one of the root causes of the subsequent Civil Wars).

Perhaps Sir Richard should have burnt down part of Hoghton Tower after all; as a result of his great expenditure on entertainment for James – further aggravated by an overdue mortgage on his alum mines at Hoghton -- Sir Richard became bankrupt, and was imprisoned in Fleet Prison.
Sir Richard died in 1630, and was succeeded to the baronetcy by his son, Gilbert (Generation 14).
M15: GERARD, Catherine (Katherine)     B: c 1569, Gerards Bromley, Staffordshire.
                                                                                M:            Sir Richard Hoghton
                                                                                D: 17-11-1617

HOME, Margaret

F15: HOME, Alexander                                  B:
                                                                                M: (i)             Margaret Ker
                                                                                      (ii)           Agnes Grey (Gray), widow of Sir Robert Logan    
                                                                                D: c 1575

                                                                                 Alexander Home

Alexander Home, the 5th Lord Home, was contracted to marry a daughter of James V of Scotland and Elizabeth Beaton. However, he married, first, Margaret Ker of Cessford (mother of their daughter, Margaret Home), and, later, Agnes Grey (Gray), daughter of Patrick lord Grey (Gray), and widow of Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig (Alexander Home, 6th Lord Home, was a product of this marriage).

Alexander was captured (9-9-1547, the day before the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh) at the skirmish at Fauside (Falside Bray) and taken hostage to England, but subsequently released on his mother surrendering Home Castle (which he later recovered, with the help of his brother, Andrew, ‘in dramatic style’, along with Fast Castle). He was appointed Warden of the East Marches (1550) and of the East and Middle Marches (1557); he was also a Privy Councillor (1561).

A supporter of the Reformation in 1560, Alexander Home sided, at first, with Mary, Queen of Scots,  to whom he sent a letter (June, 1562) advising her that Elizabeth I of England was preparing a large fleet to send to aid the Protestants in France. She showed this to the English resident at her court, Thomas Randolph who laughed at it and recorded her cynical reply: "Well, you knowe that my lord Hume hathe a castle to keape - I wyll not be verie hastie to beleeve, nor I dowbt no suche daynger as he meanethe, and I trust that for the matters of France that there wilbe accordethe, so that your mestres shall not neade to be at anye suche charge.” In spite of her suspicions regarding his motive, he apparently retained a position in the Queen’s favour, as he subsequently (1566) received her at Home Castle.

His loyalty to Mary did not, however, endure: in the Scottish Civil War he began by supporting her opposition,  and took arms against her at Carberry Hill and Langside (1568), now fighting on the side of her son, King James VI (as a reward for which the Regent Moray gave him the Commendatorship of Arbroath). But, then, he abruptly returned to Mary, and -- from 1569 to 1573 -- became one of her most stalwart supporters, defending Morton Castle on her behalf against the Regent Morton (1573). 

As a result of the surrender of the castle, Alexander was taken prisoner, convicted of treason, and had his lands and titles forfeited; he most likely died in captivity that same year. His widow, Agnes Grey (Gray) then married the Master of Glamis.
M15: KER, Margaret                                        B:
                                                                                M: (i)             Alexander Home
                                                                                       (ii)            Master of Glamis
D: ‘before 5-12-1565’
Margaret Ker

The husband of Margaret Ker, Alexander Home, is mentioned in several charters and letters of the era; one document (quoted, with the others, at http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/great-britain-royal-commission-on-historical-manu/the-manuscripts-of-the-duke-of-athole-k-t-and-of-the-earl-of-home-aer/page-21-the-manuscripts-of-the-duke-of-athole-k-t-and-of-the-earl-of-home-aer.shtml) attests to Margaret as his wife: “Letters of Procuratory by Alexander Lord Home, appointing procurators to resign in the hands of George Earl of Huntly as superior, the whole lands of Middlethird, as occupied by John Acheson senior and John Acheson junior, in the lordship of East Gordon and sheriffdom of Berwick, for new infeftment to Lord Home and Margaret Ker his
spouse. Dated at Home 20 September 1552. [This is followed, in the Home Charter chest, by a Precept of Sasine by George Earl of Huntly. Edinburgh 17 December 1552, and Instrument of sasine 7th September 1553.]

Margaret Ker is the daughter of Sir Walter Ker of Cessford. Her maternal grandmother was Janet Home, implying that she and her husband were related.

KEITH, George

F15: KEITH, William                      B:
                                                                                M: by contract, 13-1-1543/4, Elizabeth Hay
                                                                                D: 10-8-1580, Dunottar, Kincardineshire

                                                                                William Keith

Although his father – also William Keith -- was 3rd Earl of Marischal, William Keith never inherited the title of Earl, as he was killed, in a riot, in Geneva, a year before his father’s death. He was, therefore, known as ‘Lord Keith, Master of Marischal’

William was captured by the Percys (1558), and held prisoner for 10 years. In 1569 he was invested as a Privy Counsellor.

M15: HAY, Elizabeth                                        B: c 1530
                                                                                M: by contract, 13-1-1543/4, William Keith
                                                                                Comments: daughter of George Hay, 7th earl of Errol.

KENNEDY, Gilbert (or Hew)

F15: KENNEDY, Gilbert                                   B: c 1541
                                                                                M: 30-9-1566 (by contract), Margaret Lyon
                                                                                D: 14-12-1576

Gilbert Kennedy, 4th Earl of Cassilis

The 4th Earl of Cassilis (also, 6th Lord Kennedy; he succeeded to both titles on 28-11-1558) is notorious as the man who roasted alive the Commendator of Crossraguel Abbey in order to acquire lands under his protection; this, however, is merely one of a series of intrigues which caused him to be popularly described as ‘the king of Carrick’ (because of his feudal influence in that area) and as ‘the treacherous Gilbert Kennedy’. The following (edited) information on the life and career of the man who played host (at Dunure Castle, on August 4, 5, and 6, 1563) to Mary, Queen of Scots, is taken from http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/cassillis.htm:
“…..In 1562 he was sworn a privy councillor to Queen Mary, and in 1565 was appointed justiciary of Carrick. On the night of Darnley’s murder in February 1567, he and the earls of Argyle and Huntly accompanied the queen, when she took her last farewell of her ill-fated husband at Kirk of Field. His name occurs the fifth of the noblemen who subscribed the bond in favour of Bothwell’s marriage to the queen, at the famous supper given to the nobility by that reckless adventurer, and he fought on the side of Mary at the battle of Langside, 13th May 1568. 

In the parliament of 19th August following, he was declared guilty of treason, but judgment was suspended. At the convention held 14th April 1569, he acknowledged, by oath and subscription, the king’s authority, and on 17th November following, the regent declared that his lordship had made due obedience to the king. He was afterwards appointed one of the privy council. Nevertheless, we find, in March 1570, his name attached to a letter signed by a number of the lords of the queen’s faction, and sent to Queen Elizabeth in Mary’s behalf, and in the spring of the following year the regent Lennox was obliged to go to Kyle and Carrick, to pursue the earl of Cassillis for persecuting and oppressing those who acknowledged the king’s authority. On this occasion, to prevent the wasting of his lands, he gave his brother in pledge that he would enter the 15th day of May at Stirling, to confirm the conditions craved and agreed upon.

 On the death of Quentin Kennedy, the last abbot of Crossraguel, in 1564, a pension had been conferred on George Buchanan, of five hundred pounds a-year out of the abbey revenues, payment of which he appears to have found great difficulty in obtaining, owing to the seizure of the lands by the earl of Cassillis. That rich and celebrated abbey lay in the vicinity of the earl’s castle, and after he had, by forgery and murder, possessed himself of the abbacy of Glenluce, he cast his eye on Crossraguel; and the criminal records of the period exhibit an act of horrible cruelty perpetrated by him in 1570, for the purpose of adding the abbey lands to his estates”.
(The acts of “forgery and murder” referred to above regarding Gilbert’s acquisition of Glenluce involve his inducement of one of the abbey’s monks to forge the signatures on a land charter, following which he organised the assassination of this monk, further covering his tracks by having the assassin arrested and hanged.)

“Allan Stewart, the commendator of the (Crossraguel) abbey, who had succeeded Quentin Kennedy, and who lived under the protection of the laird of Bargany, was enticed, under hospitable pretences, to leave his safeguard and pass some days in Maybole with Sir Thomas Kennedy, brother of the earl. On the 29th August….he was apprehended by the earl, and conveyed to the castle of Dunure, the original seat of the family…..on the western boundary of Maybole parish. The barbarous treatment to which he was subjected, to compel him to sign a feu charter of the abbey lands, forms a striking part of the ‘Historie of the Kennedyis,’ published in 1830, by Mr. Pitcairn, from an original manuscript in the Advocates’ Library. 

The most graphic account, however, …is given by Richard Bannatyne, in his ‘Journal,’ and every part of his narrative is distinctly confirmed by the commendator’s own statements in his ‘Bill of Supplication to the Lords of Privy-Council.’ It appears that, unable to succeed in his purpose by any other means, the earl, on the 1st September, caused his baker, his cook, his pantryman, and some others, to convey the commendator to the ‘black vault of Dunure,’ where a large fire was glazing, under ‘a grit iron chimblay,’ “My lord abbot,” said the earl, “it will please you to confess here that with your own consent you remain in my company, because you dare not commit you to the hands of others.” The commendator answered, “Would you, my lord, that I should tell a manifest lie for your pleasure? The truth is, my lord, it is against my will that I am here, neither yet have I any pleasure in your company.” “But,” rejoined the earl, “you shall remain with me at this time….you must then obey me.”…. He then presented to him certain documents to sign, and, on his refusal, he commanded ‘his cooks,’ says the annalist, ‘to prepare the banquet.’ and …. bound him to the chimney, ‘his legs to the one end and his arms to the other,’ basting him well with oil, that ‘the roast should not burn.’ When nearly half roasted he consented to subscribe the documents, without reading or knowing what was contained in them. Then the earl swore those who assisted him…..on the Bible, never to reveal it to any one. 

Not content with this, on the 7th September, on the commendator’s refusal to ratify and approve the documents he had signed, before a notary and witnesses, the torment was renewed, till Stewart besought them to put an end to his sufferings by killing him at once, nor was he released till eleven o’clock at night, when they saw his life in danger and his flesh consumed and burnt to the bone. And thus the earl obtained…. ‘a fyve yeare tack and a 19 yeare tack, and a charter of feu of all the landis of Croceraguall, with the clausses necessaire for the erle to haist him to hell….” [Bannatyne’s Journal, edn. 1806, p. 57.] 

Having thus attained his purpose, the earl left the commendator in the hands of his servants at Dunure, and the laird of Bargany, who knew nothing of the treatment to which he had been subjected, raised letters of deliverance of his person, which not being attended to by the earl, he was for contempt thereof denounced rebel and put to the horn. On the 27th April following, a complaint was given in to the regent and lords of secret council, by Allan Stewart, the ‘half-roasted’ commendator; on which the earl was summoned before them. On his appearance he pleaded that the points alleged in the said complaint were either civil or criminal, and that he ought not to answer thereto except before competent judges. Without prejudice of the ordinary jurisdiction, the regent, with the advice of the council, ordered the earl to find security in two thousand pounds, not to molest the person or property of the commendator. He was also, at the request of his father’s old preceptor, George Buchanan, ‘pensioner of Crossraguel,’ ordered to find the like security with regard to him and his pension. And he was sent to Dumbarton castle until he implemented (obeyed) these orders.

In August of the same year, by the persuasion of the earl of Morton, the earl, with other lords of the queen’s faction, finally joined the king’s party, and attended the parliament held at Stirling in September, at which his escheats were remitted, in consequence of his owning the king’s authority. He obtained charters of several lands belonging to the abbacies of Crossraguel and Glenluce in 1572 and two following years, and had a charter of the lands and castle of Turnberry to himself and Margaret Lyon his wife (daughter of the ninth Lord Glammis) 8th March 1575.  According to Knox, by the persuasion of his countess he became a protestant and caused his kirks in Carrick to be reformed [Knox’s History, p. 398.] He died in September 1576” (other sources record his date of death as 14-12-1576, and note that death was due to critical injuries sustained when he was thrown by his horse).
M15: LYON, Margaret                                    B: 30-12-1547
                                                                                M: (i) 30-9-1566 (by contract), Gilbert Kennedy
                                                                                    (ii) after 30-12-1577, John Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton.
                                                                                D: December, 1625.
                                                                                Comments: her second husband was her second cousin. She is the sister
                                                                                of John Lyon, 8th Lord Glamis, recorded in this generation as husband of
                                                                                                                                                                                    Elizabeth Abernethy.


F15: LAWRENCE, Unknown                          B:
                                                                                M:            Unknown

M15: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:             Unknown Lawrence

LAWSON, William

F15: LAWSON, Gilfrid (Gylford)                  B:
                                                                                M:              Unknown Seamer
                                                                                Comments: This is the first known occurrence of the name ‘Gilfrid’ in this
                                                                                family. It was used twice more (1675 and 1710); both of these bearers of
                                                                                                                                                                the name became baronets.

M15: SEAMER, Unknown                             B:
                                                                                M:                Gilfrid (Gylford) Lawson

LEGARD, Susan (Susanna, Susannah)

F15: LEGARD, John                                          B:  1533, Anlaby, East Riding, Yorkshire
                                                                                M: 1575, Margaret (Margery) Franke
                                                                                D: 21-4-1587
                                                                                Comments: third son of Ralph Legard, seated himself at Ganton, in the
                                                                                                                                                                east riding of Yorkshire.

M15: FRANKE, Margaret (Margery)         B: 1554, St. John the Baptist upon Walbrook, London.
                                                                                M: 1575, John Legard
                                                                                Comments: daughter of Robert Frank(e)

F15: LIDDELL (LYDDALE), Thomas               B: 1537, Newcastle, Northumberland
                                                                                M:              Margaret (de) Layburne
                                                                                D: 8-5-1577

M15: (de) LAYBURNE, Margaret                B: 1540
                                                                                M:               Thomas Liddell (Lyddale)
                                                                                D: 31-10-1604
                                                                                Comments: daughter of John (de) Layburne

LINDSAY, Margaret

F15: LINDSAY, Sir David                                  B: c 1551
                                                                                M: (i) March, 1570, Lady Helen Lindsay
                                                                                      (ii) 1-12-1585, Isobel Forbes
                                                                                D: 18-12-1610

                                                                                Sir David Lindsay

As son of David Lindsay, 9th Earl of Crawford, it might have been expected that Sir David Lindsay would succeed to the title of 10th Earl; however, that title was conferred, not on the son of the 9th earl, but on a quite-distant cousin (also, confusingly, named David Lindsay), who became the father of Sir David Lindsay’s first wife, Lady Helen Lindsay (Sir David and Lady Helen were distant relations: his great-great-grandfather -- Walter Lindsay, Generation 19 -- and her great-great-great-grandfather -- Alexander Lindsay, Generation 20 -- were brothers). To confuse the matter further, the 8th Earl of Lindsay was yet another David Lindsay, and he had deliberately by-passed his son (Alexander Lindsay, who became known as ‘the Wicked Master’) as 9th Earl because he and Alexander were estranged (they had quarrelled so violently that the son had attempted to murder the father); he transferred the earldom, therefore, to his cousin’s line, excluding from succession all of his own son’s descendants (the 9th Earl, however, decided to restore the earldom to the original line of the family, so that, while Alexander never became 9th earl, his son – Lady Helen’s father – did, after all, become 10th earl). 

Thus, on the death (1558) of his father (the 9th Earl of Crawford) David Lindsay became Lord Edzell, having succeeded only to the barony and other estates of Edzell. With his brother, John Lindsay (Lord Menmuir), he was educated on the continent under the care of John Lawson, afterwards colleague of John Knox. “The sword, the pen, and pruning-hook,” says Lord Lindsay in his Lives of the Lindsays, “were equally familiar to him; he even anticipated the geologist’s hammer, and had at least a taste for architecture and design.” He devoted much attention to the utilisation of the minerals on his estate, and to agricultural improvements.”

David Lindsay, according to Wikipedia (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Lindsay,_David_%281551%3F-1610%29_%28DNB00%29)  “was one of those who on 3 May 1578 signed a band in favour of the Earl of Maras guardian of the young king, James VI (Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 691). On 14 June of the same year he appeared as procurator for the sureties of David, eleventh earl of Crawford ….. He was knighted at the creation of Esme Stuart as Duke of Lennox in October 1581. …on 2 May 1593 he was, under the title of lord Edzell, admitted a lord of session. His name first appears as a member of the privy council on 16 Nov. 1598 (Reg. P. C. Scotl. v. 495).” 

His life was scarcely less-tumultuous than that of his wife’s grandfather, ‘the Wicked Master’: Alastair Campbell, in A History of Clan Campbell, Vol 2: from Flodden to the Restoration (Edinbugh University Press, 2002), writes (p.88): ‘In October, 1581, a further quarrel broke into bloodhsed – this time in Angus, where David Lindsay of Edzell killed John Campbell of Lundy, the young grandson of the King’s Treasurer. Shortly after the killing, Edzell’s brother, Lord Menmuir, warned him that Ardkinglas’s account of the murder had so incensed Argyll that a plan was at hand to descend on Glenesk with several hundred armed MacGregors and utterly destroy it. In the event, the despoiling of Glenesk never happened – Argyll had his mind on other things and, in 1583, David Lindsay of Edzell and other members of his family were granted remission for the killing of Lundy and the wounding of John Lyon of Cossins, a member of a clan with whom the Lindsays had long been at feud. The incident was symptomatic of the growing antagonism that was felt towards the ever-increasing Campbell grasp on the area.”

This antagonism continued, for David Lindsay, into the next century. “For conniving at a fray between his son and the young laird of Pitarrow in the High Street of Edinburgh, 17 June 1605, he was for a short time warded in Dumbarton Castle. In 1607, while seeking to revenge the murder of his relative, Sir Walter Lindsay of Balgarie, he had the misfortune, at least indirectly, to occasion the death of Lord Spynie. On 10 Aug. 1609 the privy council fixed 19 Sept. for the trial of him and his son Alexander for the murder, but his prosecutor, David Lindsay, twelfth earl of Crawford, having failed to appear, no trial took place (Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, iii. 61).” (Wikipedia, op. cit.)

Sir David Lindsay married twice; his first marriage (which reunited the two lines of the family, as it was to the daughter of the man (David Lindsay) who had supplanted him as 10th Earl) was to Lady Helen Lindsay, whom he married without ‘tocher or fortune’, and who gave him three sons (Sir David of Edzell, John, and Alexander of Canterlaud) and a daughter (Margaret, who married the first earl of Southesk). By his second wife, Isobel Forbes, Sir David left no issue.

M15: LINDSAY, Lady Helen                           B:
                                                                                M: March, 1570, Sir David Lindsay
                                                                                D: December, 1579.

        Helen Lindsay

A Lindsay both before and after her marriage -- her great-great-great-grandfather (Alexander Lindsay, Generation 20) was the brother of her husband’s great-great-grandfather (Walter Lindsay, Generation 19) – Lady Helen Lindsay was both the daughter of the 10th Earl of Crawford and the wife of the man who, under normal rules of succession, ought to have been the 10th Earl of Crawford (both of these men were named ‘David Lindsay’, and she had a brother, also David Lindsay, who became the 11th earl of Crawford; care is needed when studying the genealogy of the Lindsay family in this era).

In addition to David, she had another (younger) brother, Alexander, who (according to David MacGregor Peter (1856): The baronage of Angus and Mearns: comprising the genealogy of three hundred and sixty families -- being a guide to the tourist and heraldic artist) “was much esteemed by King James VI, who chose him his Vice-Chamberlain. He advanced 10,000 gold crowns to King James, and was chosen to accompany him to Denmark on his Majesty’s nuptial expedition. So soon as his Majesty landed with his bride Princess Ann of Denmark, at his Palace of Holyrood House, 1590, he granted the temporalities of the see of Moray to the Vice-Chamberlain, in lieu of the 10,000 crowns, and raised him to the peerage by the style and title of Lord Spynie of Spynie, to him and his heirs for ever. In 1605, however, the King re-purchased these lands, and restored them to the church, with the exception of the patronage of fifty livings, in the shires of Moray, Banff, Nairn, and Inverness.”


F15: LOWTHER, Sir John                                 B: c 1582
                                                                                M:            Eleanor Fleming
                                                                                D: 15-9-1637

                                                                                Sir John Lowther

Sir John Lowther and his son (also Sir John, Generation 14) sat together in the Parliament of 1628, but were removed in 1629, when King Charles decided to rule without Parliament.

Sir John was aged 15 on death of his mother, Eleanor Musgrave (who died in childbirth with her 11th - or 15th -child, Frances); later
wrote, “In all my mother’s life, I was greatly beloved by her”.

M15: FLEMING, Eleanor                                B:
                                                                                M:              Sir John Lowther

LYON, Jean

F15: LYON, John                                                B: c 1544
                                                                                M: 11-4-1561, Elizabeth Abernethy (his first cousin), widow of William
                                                                                D: 27-3-1577/8

                                                                                John Lyon, 8th Lord Glamis

An account of the life and career of John Lyon, 8th Lord Glamis, is published on-line (at  
www.archive.org/stream/lyonmemorial00lyon/lyonmemorial00lyon_djvu.txt) in Lyon, Sidney (ed.): ‘Some Old World Lyons, 21’ in  
A Lyon Memorial, 1907; all quoted material below is extracted from this site.
Prior to the death of his father, 7th Lord Glamis (also John Lyon), “the Reformation had been gradually spreading in Scotland….. the power
of the State was in the hands of the party of the Reformation…. the sons of John Lyon, seventh Lord Glamis, John Lyon, eighth Lord 
Glamis, and Thomas Lyon, Master of Glamis, must have stood in line with the times through an evolution of opinion, and accepted the 
new order of things in active approbation…… Queen Mary had come home from France to a career of capers and intrigues, of 
conspiracies and crimes, and the thunderbolts of John Knox could not frighten her back from destruction……(her) mad marriage with the 
Black Earl, the rebellion of her outraged subjects, the surrender at Carbary Hill, and the escape from Lochleven Castle were the 
extraordinary happenings of seven years of Scottish history. The Lyons drew near together while their giddy sovereign achieved her own 
ruin, distrustful of the spinster daughter of Henry VIII and remembering the few that came home from Flodden Field, put their own house
in order.
“In a charter dated April 23rd, 1567, John Lyon, eighth Lord Glamis, made an entail of his estates of Glamis, Towndyce and Baky in 
Forfarshire, Cullan, Buttergask, Langforyard and Irchture in Perthshire, Bethelvic, Ardendracht, Collistown, Coustertown and Drumgowan 
in Aberdeenshire, on himself and the male heirs of his body, Thomas Lyon, his brother, John Lyon of Haltown of Esse, James Lyon of 
Easter Ogill, John Lyon of Culwalogy, and the heirs of their bodies, respectively, which failing, to his own nearest heirs male whatsoever 
bearing the name and Arms of Lyon. This charter gives the headship of five prominent branches of the Lyon family of Scotland in 1567, 
John Lyon, eighth Lord Glamis; Thomas Lyon, Master of Glamis; John Lyon of Haltown of Esse; James Lyon of Easter Ogill, and John Lyon of 
Culwalogy, all lineal descendants of the Feudal Baron John de Lyon of Fortevoit. 
“The eighth Lord Glamis had a charter of the Barony of Balky to himself and his wife, Elizabeth Abernathy, daughter of Lord Salton, dated 
2nd July, 1569, the sixth month of Moray’s Regency. During the Regencies of Lenox, Mar, and Morton, he rose to prominence. He was  
sworn a Privy Councillor and constituted an Extraordinary Lord of the session, 30tli September, 1570, held it till 24th October, 1573, and in
1575 was promoted to the office of High Chancellor of Scotland.
“In March, 1578, John Lyon, Lord of Glamis, was deputed to signify to the Earl of Morton, Regent of Scotland, that the King had now 
resolved to take the administration of the national affairs in his own hands. The 27th day of the same month the eighth Lord Glamis was 
killed at Sterling in an accidental encounter between his own followers and those of the Earl of Crawford. He was counted one of the 
ablest men of his own party, and Douglas took pride in mentioning that John Lyon had a correspondence with Beza, the French reformer 
and Calvanistic theologian, on the subject of church polity and the doctrines of the Prophet of Geneva.” 
John Lyon, 8th Earl of Glamis, is the brother of Margaret Lyon, recorded in this generation as wife of Gilbert Kennedy (both John and 
Margaret married cousins).

M15: ABERNETHY, Elizabeth                        B:
                                                                                M: (i)             William Meldrum
                                                                                      (ii) 11-4-1561, John Lyon, 8th Lord Glamis.
                                                                                D: before May, 1581.
                                                                                Comments: Elizabeth was 1st cousin of her 2nd husband. She is recorded as
                                                                                a descendant of both Robert I and James I of Scotland.

MACDOWALL, Margaret (or Katherine)

F15: MACDOWALL, Uchtred                        B: c 1560, Garthland, Scotland
                                                                                M:             Eupheme (Euphemia) Dunbar
                                                                                D: 11-6-1600 (executed)
                                                                                Comments: 13th Laird of Garthland. Direct descendant of King Fergus of
                                                                                Galloway and Princess Elizabeth of England. Had daughters Katherine and
                                                                                Margaret; researchers disagree on which of these two belongs in
                                                                                Generation 14 as wife of the Master of Cassilis (who died young, before
                                                                                                                                                                1615), but most record Katherine.

M15: DUNBAR, Eupheme (Euphemia)    B:
                                                                                M:             Uchtred Macdowall, 13th Laird of Garthland

Eupheme (Euphemia) Dunbar

Eupheme (Euphemia) Dunbar is affirmed as a child of John Dunbar and Elizabeth Mure by John P. Ravilious (2-10-2005, at http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.genealogy.medieval/2005-10/msg00107.html, citing Genealogics I00396847).


F15: MITFORD, Christopher                         B: 1521, Newcastle-upon-Thyne, Northumberland
                                                                                M: c 1546, Jane Anderson
                                                                                D: May 1581 (buried May 31)

                                                                                 Alderman Christopher Mitford

The will of Christopher Mitford (Sheriff of Newcastle 1551, Mayor of Newcastle 1556 and 1559) is still extant, and is reproduced in Surtees Publications of Wills and Inventories (reprinted at http://englandresearch.com/HenDOrde/d70.htm#P70, which cites History of Newcastle and Gateshead 17th Century by R. Wlford 942.8 H2we V3):

“May 31, 1581. Buried this day, Alderman Christopher Mitford, sheriff of Newcastle in 1551, and mayor in 1556 and 1569. He was the son of an alderman and merchant of the same name, and married Jane, daughter of Henry Anderson, four times mayor of the town.

 His will directs that his body be buried under his father’s stone in the church of St. Nicholas. To his son Henry he gives 40 shillings., besides 10 shillings that his grandfather Anderson left him; all his lands at Heaton, Tynemouth and Denam, and in Newcastle (with remainder to his son Robert, and his daughter Alice Craster;) also his lease of coal mines at Kenton, held of Robert Fenwick. To his son Robert, 100 shillings; besides 10 shillings that his grandfather Anderson left him, and the lease of the coal mines at Elswick.

To his wife Jane, his lease of his cousin Robert Mitford’s lands in Heaton for life, with remainder to his son Henry; also his part of the lease of the salt pans he bought of Michael Mylborne, with remainder to his son Robert.

To Edmund and Alice Craster, 20 shillings; to Jane Craster, daughter of Edmund, 10 shillings. To Jane daughter of his son Henry, 10 shillings; and to Christopher and Henry, Henry’s sons, an angel a-piece.

To each of his daughter Craster’s children, 10 shillings. To Jane, daughter of his son Robert, 10 shillings., and to Christopher, her brother, an angel. To Agnes, daughter of his son Henry, his sister Brandling’s three children, and his sister Orde’s two children, an angel each.

To his cousin, Henry Anderson, and his good wife, for a token of his good-will, two old angels. To his sister, Marian Chapman, an old angel noble. To Barbara, his son Henry’s wife, and Ellinor, his son Robert’s wife, an angel noble a-piece.

To his brother-in-law, Henry Anderson, and his godson Abraham Anderson, each an angel. Residue to his son Robert, executor. (Various tokens to servants and friends). Supervisors-Henry Anderson, Alderman; Edmund Craster; Henry Mitford; George Stell. Proved July 5th, the same year.”

M15: ANDERSON, Jane                                  B:
                                                                                M: c 1546, Ald. Christopher Mitford

Jane Anderson

Jane Anderson’s will is still in existence, and is reproduced in History of Newcastle and Gateshead, (1887), Richard Welford (ed.), printed at http://www.archive.org/details/historynewcastl01welfgoog:

Date of the will of Jane, widow of Christopher Mitford, mayor of Newcastle in 1569. She was a daughter of Henry Anderson, four times mayor of Newcastle, sister of Bertram Anderson, mayor and M.P., and aunt of Henry Anderson, mayor and M.P., who died the year before. Her age is not recorded, but it must have been great, for she was the eldest of nine children, and her brother Bertram, the third child, was sheriff of Newcastle in 1545. She desires to be buried in St. Nicholas' church, in the grave of her husband; gives to the repairs of that church, 3/. 6s. 8d, and to the poor of Newcastle. 10/. 6s. 8d. Leaves to Robert Mitford, son of her son Henry, deceased, 50/., and to his brothers Roger, Henry, Edmund, and Thomas, 30/. a-piece; to Henry's daughters- — Agnes Barker, Alice Sharpe, Barbara Mylborne, and Elizabeth and Mary Mitford — 50/. each; to Christopher son of her son Robert, deceased, 120/., and half her moiety of the tithe com of the rectory of Newcastle, he paying yearly to his brother, Anderson Mitford, 20/., and testatrix's niece, Alice Dent, 20s.; to Henry, son of Robert, 200/., and the other half of the tithe, he also paying Alice Dent 20s, a-year; to said Christopher and Henry, the lease of coal-mines at Elswick; to Anderson Mitford aforesaid, 240/.; to Jane Clarkson, daughter of her son Robert, 40/.; to John Craister, son of her daughter Alice, deceased, and his brothers Edmond and Thomas, 20/. each ; to the children of Jane Anderson, deceased, daughter of Alice Craster, 16/.; to Margaret, wife of Henry Collingwood, and Isabel, wife of Luke Ogle, Barbara, wife of Cuthbert Bewick, Grace, wife of William Armorer, and Eleanor Craster, 20/. each. To her cousin, Mr. Henry Chapman, 3/. 6s. 8d.; and to her cousin, William Jackson, town clerk, an old angel; to George Still, 10/,, and to her niece, Emmet, his sister, an old angel; to her cousin Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Miller, 6s. Executors: John Craster and Christopher Mitford, her son Robert's son. Supervisors: her cousins, Henry Chapman, alderman, and George Still. Her goods amounted to 1839/. 7s. 3d.”

MUSGRAVE, Sir Edward

F15: MUSGRAVE, William                             B: 1518
                                                                                M: Before 1546, Isabel Martindale (Martendale)
                                                                                D: 18-8-1597

                                                                                William Musgrave

William Musgrave was one of the deputies of Sir Thomas Wharton, holding the barony of Gillesland (north east of Carlisle); as such, he commanded a company of Border Horse, probably holding overall command of all Wharton’s Border Horse Companies. Letters written by both Wharton and William Musgrave have survived; although Musgrave’s letter appears to have been dashed off from his memory of a conversation with Wharton, coupled with his own remembrance of the Battle of Sollom Moss (or Solway Moss) fought on 24-11-1542 against an invading Scottish army, it is written with consistent spelling and grammar, indicating that Musgrave was quite well educated. Even though his version dramatically shortens the story between the burning of the Grames and the stand at Hopesykehill, it is still virtually a minute by minute recounting of the Hopesikehill events (which
resulted in a resounding victory for the English defenders):

“A greate armie of Scotland ......to the nombre of xviijten thowsand men and moo, entred this West Marches and brint the Graimes, that is to say aswell theire houses of the river of Eske, as also theire houses standing upon the Debatable Land, to the wich Master warden my selfe, and all other gentlemen of these West Marches, with thinhabitauntes of the same to the nombre of thre thowsand at the most, with all spede made repaire to serve the kinges majestie”.

He continues (but with less detail) with a description of events after Hopesykehill, writing that Robert Maxwell “fought valiantly”, and describing the capture of prisoners and spoil.

William Musgrave is also recorded in Generation 17 as father of Eleanor Musgrave.

Johnby Hall (in the village of Johnby, six miles north-west of Penrith) bears, above the door, the following inscription: “Nicholas Musgrave maret Margaret Tellel, Heyre. Thomas his sone maret Elizabet Dacre. Willm. his sone here now dwell, maret Isabel, Heyre to Martindale. To God I pray be vith hus allvaie.William Musgrave, Isabel Martindale, 1583”. In the centre of the inscription is a shield encircled by a garter, surmounted by the Musgrave crest, inscribed, “O God give me wisdome to know thee”.
                                                                                M: Before 1546, William Musgrave
                                                                                Comments: Also listed in Generation 17 as mother of Eleanor Musgrave.

NEVILL, Catherine (Katherine)

F15: NEVILL, Ralph                                           B: c 1475, Thornton Briggs, Yorkshire
                                                                                M:  before 1501, Anne Ward(e)
                                                                                D: 24-7-1522
                                                                                Comments: ‘of Thornton Briggs’.

M15: WARD(E), Anne                                     B: c 1480, Thornton Briggs, Yorkshire
                                                                                M: before 1501, Ralph Nevill
                                                                                Comments: one source refers to her as ‘Beatrix Anne’.


F15: NEWMAN, Thomas                                B: c 1545, Wimpole, Cambridgeshire
                                                                                M: 29-11-1570, Annis (Ann, Agnes) Upchurch
                                                                                D: buried 30-10-1580m Wendy-cum-Shingay

M15: UPCHURCH, Annis (Ann, Agnes)    B: c 1549, Wimpole, Cambridgeshire
                                                                                M: 29-11-1570,Thomas Newman

PENNE, Susan

F15: PENNE, Thomas                                      B: c 1532
                                                                                M:             Margery Saunders
                                                                                D: 15-7-1603 (Celia Sheppard’s research gives this date as 1602)

                                                                                Thomas Penne

Thomas Penne succeeded his father, John Penne, in 1558. He “appears to have joined with his mother Lucy in selling part of the demesne lands and the site of the manor to his brother Robert …who died in February 1592-3, having previously settled the site of the manor, Codicote Bury, with certain other lands on his daughter Anne, the wife of Walter Grey…… Thomas Penne died in 1603 seised of the manor of Codicote with the exception of the eighteen messuages and lands which he had sold to his brother, leaving Thomas son of John, his grandson and heir, under age” (British History On-line, at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43291&strquery=Penne).
M15: SAUNDERS, Margery                           B: c 1524
                                                                                M:             Thomas Penne
                                                                                D: 1-9-1595
                                                                                Comments: daughter of Thomas Saunders of Agmondisham (Amersham),


                                                                                M:               Unknown
                                                                                Comments: of Exeter

M15: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:              Thomas Penruddock (Penruddel) of Exeter


F15: PRESTON, John                                        B:
                                                                                M:             Mabel Benson
                                                                                D: 11-9-1597

M15: BENSON, Mabel                                    B:
                                                                                M:              John Preston

                                                                                Mabel Benson

Daughter of William Benson of Hewgill, Mabel brought to her husband, at the time of her marriage, a part of the Preston Richard estate which had passed from the de Preston to the de Penington family as a result of the marriage of Katherine de Preston (Generation 18) to Alan de Penington (the Benson family remained connected to Preston Richard until the 19th Century; the Westmorland Church Notes for Heversham show a tombstone dedicated to the memory “of John Benson of Preston Richard who died Augt. 26th, 1820”).

RUTHVEN, Margaret

F15: RUTHVEN, William                                  B: c 1541
                                                                                M: 17-8-1561, Dorothea Stewart
                                                                                D: 4-5-1584 (executed).

                                                                                William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie
William Ruthven was known as ‘Lord Ruthven’  from the time of hisd succession (1566); from 1581, he was also known as ‘Earl of Gowrie’ (which title he was given as a reward for the role he played in the downfall of the Earl of Morton, who had, earlier, been an advocate).
Like his father, Patrick Ruthven (3rd Lord Ruthven), William was ‘prominent in the political intrigues of the period’. He was part of the gang (led by his father) which murdered David Rizzio, and fled, with his father, into exile in England (unlike Patrick, who died there, William managed to gain a pardon for this offence, thanks to efforts on his behalf by the Earl of Morton; this, however, did not change his attitude towards Mary Queen of Scots, as he later took a prominent role in the decision to force her abdication, eventually campaigning against (1558) her at the battle of Langside).
William “was the last-known custodian of the famous silver casket containing the letters alleged to have been written by Mary, Queen of Scots, to her third husband James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell” (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Ruthven,_1st_Earl_of_Gowrie).

William Ruthven married Dorothea Stewart, a daughter of Henry Stewart (1st Lord Methven) and his second wife, Janet Stewart (both of whom are recorded in Generation 18 as parents of  Henry II Stewart of Methven (Methuen). William and Dorothea had ten daughters and four sons.

William devised (1582) the ultimately-unsuccessful plot – known as the Raid of Ruthven -- to seize James VI of Scotland (while he was visiting his home at Huntingtower Castle) and  take control of the government, for which offence he was, eventually, attainted and executed as a traitor (4-5-1584). All his honours were forfeited as part of that process (they were, ultimately, restored to his eldest son, James, just two years before his own death, in 1588).

William Ruthven is the sister of Jean (Janet) Ruthven, who is recorded in Generation 17 as the wife of Lord Henry II Stewart Methven (Methuen), the brother of his wife, Dorothea.

M15: STEWART, Dorothea                            B:
                                                                                M: 17-8-1561, William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie
                                                                                Comments: sister of Henry II Stewart of Methven (Generation 17), who
                                                                                married William Ruthven’s sister, Jean (Janet) Ruthven (also Gen 17).


F15: SANDERSON, John                                 B: c 1458, Newcastle
                                                                                M:             Unknown Jackson

M15: JACKSON, Unknown                           B:
                                                                                M:              John Sanderson

SCOTT, Sir William

F15: SCOTT, James                                           B: c 1558, Bergen-op-zoom, Holland.
                                                                                M: 23-6-1583 (contract), Elizabeth Wardlaw
                                                                                D: 1606, Bergen-op-zoom, Holland

M15: WARDLAW, Elizabeth                          B: c 1562, Bergen-op-zoom, Holland
                                                                                M: 23-6-1583 (contract), James Scott

SKENE, Jean (Jane)

F15: SKENE, Sir John                                        B: 1543
                                                                                M: 1577, Helen Somerville
                                                                                D: 1617
                                                                                Sir John Skene of Curriehill

Sixth of the seven sons of James Skene of Watercorse and Rainnie (Aberdeenshire) by his wife, Janet Lumsden (daughter of Lumsden of Cushnie), Sir John Skene of Curriehill, a celebrated Scottish lawyer and judge, was incorporated in St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, as early as 1556, and was regent there in 1564 and 1565, following which he spent several years in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden.  After ‘prosecuting the study of law’ in Paris, he returned to Scotland and passed advocate (19-3-1575). 

“His rapid rise at the bar is attested by the frequent occurrence of his name in connection with cases before the privy council, and his legal attainments are evidenced by his selection, along with Sir James Balfour, by the regent Morton to prepare a digest of the laws. Morton did not live to see the task completed, but before his retirement from the regency he, in June 1577, granted to Skene for his services an annual pension of ten chalders of meal out of the revenues of the abbey of Arbroath (Acta Parl. Scot. iii. 89)….. unlike many other Scottish statesmen of his time, (Sir John) enjoyed the confidence of the kirk, and in 1581 the general assembly suggested to the king that he should be appointed procurator for certain ministers who had received injuries in the execution of their offices, and for the trial of whose case a special judge was appointed (Calderwood, History, iii. 522). In 1589 also, when the kirk was in great dread of the schemes of the ‘jesuits, seminary priests, and other seducers of the people,’ he was appointed one of ten commissioners who were to meet weekly to consult as to measures for ‘the weal of the kirk in so dangerous a time’ (ib. v. 4). His friendship with the kirk may account for the remark of the king to Sir James Melville (when Melville proposed that Skene should accompany him to Denmark to conclude a treaty for the king's marriage with the Princess Anne) that there ‘were many better lawyers.’ But when Sir James replied that Skene ‘was best acquainted with the conditions of the Germans, and could make them long harangues in Latin, and was a good true stout man like a Dutchman,’ the king agreed that he should go (Melville, Memoirs, p. 366).” (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Skene,_John_%28DNB00%29). 

Sir John was also chosen to accompany King James when he himself set sail for Denmark on October 22 that year, and was, subsequently, named joint king's advocate (with David Macgill), in which office he “specially commended himself to the king by his zeal in witch prosecution; the horror of his proceedings is perhaps unsurpassed in the annals of superstition.” (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Skene,_ John_%28DNB00%29). Soon afterwards he received the honour of knighthood, and was appointed (1591) ambassador to the States-General. Sir John served as ambassador to Holland from 1591 (his daughter’s husband’s parents – James Scott and Elizabeth Wardlaw, Generation 15 -- were both born in Bergen-op-zoom). 

In 1592 Sir John “was named one of a commission to examine the laws and acts of parliament, and to consider which of them should be printed, and he was finally entrusted with the preparation of the work. It was published by Robert Waldegrave on 15 May 1597, under the title The Lawes and Actes of Parliament maid be King James the First and his successors kings of Scotland, visied, coffected, and extracted forth of the Register, and on 3 June the privy council remitted to the lords of session to enforce the purchase of it by all subjects of sufficient ‘substance and habilitie’ (Reg. P. C. Scotl. v. 463).” (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Skene,_John_%28DNB00%29).  
Wikisource continues: “In September 1594 Skene was appointed clerk-register, and on 30 October he was admitted an ordinary lord of session with the title Lord Curriehill. On 9 Jan. 1595–6 he was named one of the eight commissioners of the exchequer known as the Octavians….who demitted their offices on 7 January of the following year. He subsequently served on various important commissions, including that for the union of Scotland with England in 1604. On 26 July of this year he is mentioned as having resigned his office of clerk-register in favour of his son James (Reg. P. C. Scotl. vii. 6); but the resignation, for whatever reason, did not then take effect. In 1607 he completed his work on the laws of Scotland previous to James I, and on 23 February, 1608, an act was passed for printing it at the public expense (Acta Parl. Scotl. iv. 378). It appeared in 1609 under the title Regiam Majestatem. Scotiæ Veteres Leges et Constitutiones, ex Archivis Publicis, et antiquis Libris manuscriptis collectæ, recognitæ, et notis Juris Civilis, Canonici, Normannici auctoritate confirmatis, illustratæ. …..In 1597 was also published De Verborum Significatione—the Exposition of the Termes and Difficill Words conteined in the four Buiks of Regiam Majestatem and uthers, in the Acts of Parliament, Infeftments, and used in practicque in this Realme … collected and exponed by Master John Skene (Edinburgh, by Robert Waldegrave; new edition London, 1641, 4to).”

Sir John and his wife, Helen Somerville, had four sons and six daughters; in 1611, he resigned from his office of clerk-register in favour of the eldest son, Sir James (who would eventually – in 1626 – become a baronet in Nova Scotia), and sent him to court with the express instruction that he should not proceed with the serving of the resignation unless he found the king willing to grant him the office. James, however, “agreed to make the resignation on receiving an ordinary judgeship, and the office was bestowed on Sir Thomas Hamilton ….According to Spotiswood, so deeply did Sir John Skene take the disappointment to heart that, although the king did his best to satisfy him, and succeeded in reconciling him and his son, ‘so exceeding was the old man's discontent, as within a few days he deceased’ (History in the Spottiswood Society, iii. 215). The latter statement is, however, quite incorrect, for Skene survived the disappointment for several years. He did not retire from the privy council until 18 June 1616, when his son was admitted in his room (Reg. P. C. Scotl. x. 540).”  (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Skene,_John_%28DNB00%29).

Sir John’s second son, John Skene of Hallyards, followed in his father’s footsteps, rising to high judicial office as the Lord Clerk Register. His other children were: Alexander; William; Jane (married to Sir William Scot of Ardross); Margaret (married to Robert Learmonth); Catherine (married to Sir Alexander Hay, lord Foresterseat); and Euphemia (married to Sir Robert Richardson of Pencaitland).
An important collection of so-called Scottish tunes, preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, bears, on the first leaf, the signature ‘Magister Johannes Skeine’; while this has long been attributed to Sir John, it is now believed that it must have been written either by his second son, or even a later member of the family (it was published, in 1838, under the title Ancient Scottish Melodies, from a manuscript of the reign of King James VI. With an Introductory Enquiry, illustrative of the History of Music in Scotland, by William Dauney, esq., F.S.A. Scot.) 

M15: SOMERVILLE, Helen                             B: 1554, Cambusnethan, Lanarkshire
                                                                                M: 1577, Sir John Skene of Curriehill

STRANGWAYS (STRANGEWAYS), Barbara (or Margaret)

F15: STRANGWAYS (STRANGEWAYS), Richard                            
                                                                                M:              Unknown                                                                               

Richard Strangways (Strangeways)

The unreliability of the dating for Barbara (or Margaret) Strangways (Strangeways) makes it difficult to identify the ‘Richard Strangways’ who is, traditionally, recorded as her father.

Http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/s/i/n/Samantha-J-Singleton-/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-1173.html records him as Richard Strangways, 1485-1550, husband of Unknown, but then records the birth date for Barbara as 1616, more than sixty-five years after his death.  Kyle Tutwiler Spicer, at http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spicer&id=I999, also has Richard Strangways, father of Barbara, dying in 1550; but he proceeds to record Barbara (whose date of birth is not given) as the wife of George (not Thomas) Liddell (Lyddall), who was born, according to this site, in 1619, by which time his ‘bride’ would have been at least seventy.

In both cases, the genealogical line from Richard (died 1550) is clear: he is recorded as the son of Alice (le) Scrope and James Strangways (1455 - 4-11-1521), who was, in turn, the son of Richard Strangways (1433-1488), who married Elizabeth Neville and died before his father (James Strangways, speaker of the House of Commons, who, with first wife, Elizabeth Darcy, had eleven sons and four daughters; he then has several more children with his second wife, Elizabeth Eure).

However, most sites do not list a ‘Barbara’ or ‘Margaret’ among this Richard’s children, and at several sites(for example, at ingilbyhistory.ripleycastle.co.uk/.../STRANGEWAYS%20of%20Harl., which provides a comprehensive gamily tree for the Strangways family) Richard is recorded as being the son (of three) who never married. Yet, contrary to this, http://www.tim.ukpub.net/pl_tree/ps24/ps24_155.html records all three sons as marrying: the first (Thomas) to Anne Dacre (as on the family tree mentioned above); the second (James) to ‘as her 2nd husband, Elizabeth Pigot’ (the family tree lists her as Elizabeth Ratcliff); and the third (not identified by a Christian name), to “the daughter and co-heir of James of Ripon”, citing, as proof, an entry for all three sons “on the Pigot Roll”. The only mention of ‘James of Ripon’ found in the traditional genealogies is ‘James Fyssher of Ripon’ -- at www.girders.net/.../Fyssher,%20James,%20of%20Ripon,%20(fl.1466)  -- who, in 1466, “was fined 2d for selling fish against the form of the statute”.

There seems little hard evidence on which to continue the genealogical line of Richard Strangways (Strangeways) and Unknown, parents of Barbara (or Margaret) Strangways (Strangeways). 

M15: UNKNOWN                                             B:
                                                                                M:              Richard Strangways (Strangeways)
                                                                                Comments: possibly daughter of ‘James of Ripon’ (see commenst above).
STRICKLAND, Sir Walter (of Sizergh)

F15: STRICKLAND, Sir Walter                    B: 1464
                                                                                M: 1491, Elizabeth Pennington
                                                                                D: 26-9-1506

M15: PENNINGTON, Elizabeth                 B: c 1466
                                                                                M: (i) Unknown Salkeld (died before 1491)
       (ii) 1491, Walter Strickland (died 26-9-1506)
       (iii) c 1508, Sir Richard Cholmeley (died December, 1521)
       (iv) Sir William Gascoigne of Cardington
                                                                                D: 12-10-1546

STRICKLAND, Walter (of Boynton)

F15: STRICKLAND, William                            B:  c 1515
                                                                                M:              Elizabeth Strickland
                                                                                D: 8-12-1598

                                                                                William Strickland of Boynton

Referred to as ‘William the Navigator’ in his youth and ‘Strickland the Stinger’ in his later political career, William Strickland sailed (c 1530) to the New World with Sebastian Cabot (son of John Cabot) on one of his voyages of exploration, bringing back from Mexico several large cages of turkeys (“Most strange and marvellous birds”). He started breeding them at Boynton (near Bridlington) as a hobby, and presented one to Elizabeth Tudor, who so much enjoyed this novel food that she granted him (1550) a crest featuring “a turkey-cock in his pride proper” (the official record of his crest in the archives of the College of Arms is said to be the oldest surviving European drawing of a turkey).  Later, When James I came to England, he expressed a dislike for the traditional English Christmas dish (boar’s head), and turkey was substituted; it has remained popular ever since.

In 1542, William Strickland returned to Yorkshire from the New World, buying, with the proceeds of his voyages, estates at Wintringham and Boynton, both in the East Riding. He seems to have lived the remainder of his life at Place Newton, his house at Wintringham (where he is buried), but he had the Norman manor house at Boynton rebuilt as Boynton Hall, and this became the seat of his descendants (the present church at Boynton is liberally decorated with the family’s turkey crest, most notably in the form of a probably-unique lectern carved in the form of a turkey rather than the conventional eagle, the bible supported by its outspread tail feathers).
William Strickland was elected to Parliament (1558) as the Member of Parliament for Scarborough. He proved an able and eloquent advocate of the Puritan cause, eventually earning, from his opponents, the nickname ‘Strickland the Stinger’ (the anonymous author of the Simonds d’Ewes diaries described him as “a grave and ancient man of great zeal, and perhaps (as he himself thought) not unlearned”).
While, apparently, not particularly prominent in his first two parliaments, William Strickland came to the forefront in the 1571 parliament, in which the Puritan faction was stronger than previously; finding himself at the centre of a constitutional crisis (one of Parliament’s earliest assertions of its privilege to conduct its proceedings without royal interference with its members). He spoke on both the first two days of the session April 6 and 7, 1571), putting forward, on the latter, a motion (defeated in the previous parliament) to reintroduce six bills to reform the Book of Common Prayer; although the Speaker allowed the bills to be read, the Queen had previously directed that Parliament should not debate such matters, and William’s motion earned the House a royal reprimand.
Further, on the last day before the Easter recess (April 14, 1571), William Strickland introduced his own bill to reform the prayer book; it proposed (among other measures) to abolish confirmation, prevent priests from wearing vestments, and end the practice of kneeling at the Communion. Against the vigorous opposition of the privy counsellors present, the bill was given a first reading; however, after some argument, the House voted to petition the Queen for permission to continue discussing the bill before any further action was taken, and, on that note, the house adjourned. William was subsequently summoned before the Privy Council; while sources differ on whether he was imprisoned or otherwise menaced, it seems certain he was, at least, forbidden to retake his seat in the Commons (when the House reassembled, one member reported that the Catholics believed that William was on trial for his life on heresy charges, whereupon  Sir Francis Knollys assured members that he had been “neither detained or abused”; nevertheless, the members found it unacceptable that an MP should be prevented from attending except by order of the House itself, and most of the day’s proceedings were occupied by a hostile debate, moderate members -- as well as William’s puritan allies -- demanding  he be sent for and heard at the bar of the house). When, the following day, William triumphantly re-appeared, the other members (as the D’Ewes journal records) “did, in witness of their joy for the restoration of one of their … members … nominate him [to a] committee”.
While he was not re-elected immediately following the subsequent dissolution of the parliament in 1572, William Strickland was returned as MP for Scarborough once more, in 1584.
There is some disagreement between historians of the period as to whether William Strickland should be considered the prime mover in the controversy he caused, or merely a spokesman of the Puritan faction following a course of action directed by its ringleaders. Strickland was one of 46 MPs who were lampooned by an opponent for speaking together on a motion in 1566, and who J E Neale referred to as ‘Norton's Choir’ (after Thomas Norton, whom he considered the moving spirit of the group). Neale admits that William was “the hero of this new Parliament” (of 1571), but says of his most important speeches that “to assume that [they] sprung from Strickland’s mind alone would be childish” (Geoffrey Elton and Conrad Russell – more recent historians -- have since rejected  the ‘Norton's Choir’ theory).
The marriage of William Strickland of Boynton to Elizabeth Strickland of Sizergh reunited two branches of the Boynton family, as the Boynton line is reupted to be descended from the Stricklands of Sizergh. However, the line from William’s father (Roger Strickland of Marske, Generation 16) is unclear, so the family relationship between William and Elizabeth cannot be measured.

M15: STRICKLAND, Elizabeth                       B:
                                                                                M:              William Strickland of Boynton


Elizabeth Strickland

Elizabeth Strickland is the link which joins two branches of the Boynton family; originally ‘of Sizergh’ (the daughter of Sir Walter Strickland and sister of Agnes Strickland (Generation 13), she married the son of Roger Strickland of Marske (a distant relative), and became the first Strickland ‘of Boynton’.

Elizabeth had five children, the first of whom was born shortly before his grandfather’s death, and was named ‘Walter’ after him.


F15: WENTWORTH, Sir Peter                       B: 1524, Lillingstone, Dayrell, Buckinghamshire
                                                                                M: (i)              Laetitia (Lettice) Lane
                                                                                      (ii) c 1555, Elizabeth Walsingham
                                                                                D: 10-11-1596 (in Tower of London) 
Sir Peter Wentworth

Educated at Lincoln Inn (1542), and reared in a radical religious atmosphere (his younger brother, Paul, was an ardent puritan who sat in Parliament from 1559 to 1581 and played a notable part as a radical in the proceedings), Sir Peter Wentworth was an outspoken and irresolute member of the House of Commons in the time of Elizabeth I, eventually spending much of his life in prison (in the Tower of London) over his refusal to bow to the Queen’s wishes to limit the freedom of Parliament.
Sir Peter first became a member of the House of Commons relatively late in life, in 1571, as the member for Barnstaple (in 1593 he told how, 31 years before, he had been stirred to interest himself in politics ‘by God’s good motion’, and by ‘lamentable messages’ sent by ‘sundry grave and wise men unknown unto me’), but there were earlier indications of his interest in the affairs of his country (his name appears on the commission of the peace for Oxfordshire in 1559, but was unaccountably removed before 1562).

He came to a Parliament bent on reform of the Church of England (the Puritans had a majority in the House at that time), and, therefore, on a collision course with the head of the Church, the reigning monarch (Queen Elizabeth). In his first Parliament, Sir Peter served on the committee of the bill to confirm the Articles of Religion, and was one of a delegation of six whom Archbishop Parker questioned in April, 1571, about their exclusion of the non-doctrinal articles from the bill (asked why they had omitted these, Sir Peter answered that the members had “had no time to examine ... how they agreed with the word of God …. we will pass nothing before we understand what it is, for that were but to make you Popes … we will make you none”).

 This troublesome session saw the temporary sequestration from the House of the puritan leader, William Strickland, and an official reprimand for another radical, Robert Bell, who had dared to attack the exercise of the royal prerogative. On the eve of the Easter recess, Sir Humphrey Gilbert made a gratuitous attack on Bell’s speech, which provoked Sir Peter Wentworth to make (April 20) the first of many speeches (in which the Scriptures were widely quoted) in defence of the liberties of the House, denouncing Gilbert’s speech as intended only to instil fear into those who should be free, and requesting care for the credit of the House and for the maintenance of free speech.

The following Parliament (1572), summoned after the Ridolfi plot, was concerned mainly with the problem of Mary Queen of Scots and the Duke of Norfolk (who stood condemned for treason). Sir Peter was placed (12-5-1572) on the committee which discussed the great cause with a committee of the Lords, in which position he was very active, making several speeches in the House of Commons, calling time and again for the execution of Norfolk and passionately demanding the death of Mary, ‘the most notorious whore in all the world’. When a soothing message from the Queen prompted two Members to move that a delegation should convey their thanks to her, Sir Peter opposed the motion, saying that he could offer no thanks, and urging the House to refuse to do anything more until the Duke of Norfolk was executed (his boldness he defended in a speech on June 9, holding that he “had rather commit some folly in speech than do injury by silence”).

The Queen eventually prohibited Parliament’s further interference in the affairs of the Church of England, which she headed, and, when her command was disregarded (three bills urging reform of the Church had been presented, one – introduced by Sir Peter in 1572 -- seeking reform by following the Presbyterian model) took the serious step of dissolving Parliament. When, three years later (8-2-1575), she recalled Parliament (having, shrewdly, first packed the House of Commons with representatives of newly-restored old boroughs that were controlled by the Crown, so that the Puritans were no longer in the majority), Sir Peter, seeing her actions as a threat to its continued existence, rose at the first session, demanding that freedom of speech for a Parliament immune from control by the Crown be entrenched in the Constitution (“a novel and revolutionary conception, without historical justification”) in a speech that is “deservedly famous among English parliamentary orations”:

 “Mr. Speaker, I find written in a little volume these words in effect: ‘Sweet is the name of liberty, but the thing itself a value beyond all inestimable treasure’ In this House which is termed a place of free speech there is nothing so necessary for the preservation of the prince and state as free speech, and without it it is a scorn and mockery to call it a Parliament house, for in truth it is none, but a very school of flattery and dissimulation and so a fit place to serve the Devil and his angels in and not to glorify God and benefit the Commonwealth. 

Two things did ‘very great hurt’. One is a rumour that runneth about the House, and this it is: take heed what you do, the Queen's majesty liketh not of such a matter. Whosoever preferreth it, she will be much offended with him. Or, the contrary, her Majesty liketh of such a matter, whosoever speaketh against it she will be much offended with him. The other is sometimes a message… brought into the House ….very injurious unto the freedom of speech and consultation. I would to God, Mr. Speaker, that these two were buried in Hell, I mean rumours and messages... 

Her Majesty hath committed great faults, yea dangerous faults to herself and the state ... It is a dangerous thing in a prince unkindly to entreat and abuse his or her nobility and people as her Majesty did the last Parliament, and it is a dangerous thing in a prince to oppose or bend herself against her nobility and people ... and how could any prince more unkindly entreat, abuse and oppose herself against her nobility and people than her Majesty did the last Parliament? 

Did she not call it of purpose to prevent traitorous perils to her person and for no other cause? Did not her Majesty send unto us two bills, willing us to make a choice of that we liked best for her safety and thereof to make a law, promising her Majesty’s royal consent thereto? And did we not first choose the one and her Majesty refused it, yielding no reason, nay, yielding great reasons why she ought to have yielded to it? Yet did not we nevertheless receive the other and agreeing to make a law thereof did not her Majesty in the end refuse all our travails? And did not we her Majesty’s faithful nobility and subjects plainly and openly decipher ourselves unto her Majesty and our hateful enemy? And hath not her Majesty left us all to her open revenge? Is this a just recompense in our Christian Queen for our faithful dealings? The heathen do requite good for good; then how much more is it dutiful in a Christian prince? And will not this her Majesty’s handling, think you, Mr. Speaker, make cold dealing in many of her Majesty’s subjects toward her? Again I fear it will. And hath it not caused many already, think you, Mr. Speaker, to seek a salve for the head that they have broken? I fear it hath. And many more will do the like if it be not prevented in time. And hath it not marvellously rejoiced and encouraged the hollow hearts of her Majesty’s hateful enemies and traitorous subjects? No doubt but it hath. 

......It is a great and special part of our duty and office, Mr. Speaker, to maintain the freedom of consultation and speech, for by this are good laws that do set forth God’s glory and are for the preservation of the prince and state made.….
I have holden you long with my rude speech, the which since it tendeth wholly with pure consciences to seek the advancement of God’s glory, our honourable sovereign’s safety and to the sure defence of this noble isle of England, and all by maintaining the liberties of this honourable council, the fountain from whence all these do spring, my humble and hearty suit unto you all is to accept my goodwill and that this that I have here spoken of conscience and great zeal unto my prince and state may not be buried in the pit of oblivion and so no good come thereof....” (The complete speech can be found at www.uark.edu/depts/comminfo/cambridge/wentworth.html)

Sir Peter’s speech -- the first full statement of the doctrine of freedom of speech in the House -- was widely reported in England and abroad (copies have survived for posterity), and his suit was, indeed, granted; however, the immediate consequence of his defiance of the power of the Crown was that he was committed to the serjeant’s custody and, that afternoon, examined by a committee of the House. (his own account of this examination has survived).The committee was forced to conclude that “Mr. Wentworth will never acknowledge himself to make a fault, nor say that he is sorry for anything that he doth speak”.

The following day the committee reported back to the House; in spite of the fact that his wife’s father had been a sergeant in London, and her brother (Francis Walsingham) was, at the time, Elizabeth I’s trusted secretary and adviser, Sir Peter was sent to the Tower of London, where he remained for just over a month, until, two days before the end of the Parliamentary session, the Queen intervened and returned him to the House, accompanying her action with “a gracious and magnanimous message” (Elizabeth was, much later, to refer to this act of leniency: when, in January, 1581, Sir Peter’s brother, Paul Wentworth, moved and carried a motion for a public fast, in clear breach of the Queen’s ecclesiastical rights, his name recalled, to Elizabeth, Sir Peter’s rash action in 1576; in her withering rebuke to the House she imputed their offence partly to her “lenity towards a brother of that man which now made this motion”) .

This was just the first of several periods (of increasing length) of imprisonment for Sir Peter’s outspoken criticism of the Crown’s policies. In 1587, he was sent to the Tower for a second time after moving to restrict the Crown’s ability to control the agenda of Parliament (if passed, his motion would have stripped the Crown of its prescriptive right of control and discipline and would have left it defenceless except for the royal veto or support in the House of Lords). This time there was no last-minute royal reprieve, and he remained imprisoned until after the end of the Parliamentary session.

Also, in 1587, after the death of Mary Stuart, Sir Peter had drafted A Pithie Exhortation to her Majestie for establishing her successor to the crowne, a tract eventually published after his death; its language was forthright, his admonitions to the Queen at times ‘shockingly frank’ (in a letter to William Cecil he later defended the sharpness of his language by quoting ‘the spirit of God in Solomon’). He attempted to present this tract to Parliament in 1589 and again in 1590, seeking support from the Earl of Essex; however, copies of the tract were leaked to the Privy Council, and in August, 1591, they committed him close prisoner, this time to the Gatehouse. 

Sir Peter remained intractable: instead of seeking pardon, he tried, once more, to get William Cecil (the Baron of Burghley and a Knight of the Garter) to approach the Queen, convinced that this statesman believed as he did (which may, indeed, have been true). Sir Peter was released from the Gatehouse in November, confined for a time in a private house, and finally set at liberty in February, 1592. 

He refused to abandon this cause, and when, in 1592, a new Parliament was summoned, he was returned again for Northampton and came to Westminster with a bill, speeches and other papers that might be needed to press his case. A small group of seven Members of Parliament met at chambers in Lincoln’s Inn (21-2-1593) to listen to his plans, and were to have met again the following day; however, news of his intentions had reached the Privy Council. The group was detained and examined by the Council (Sir Peter all the while remaining unrepentant and insisting on his rights as a Member of Parliament), and he was once again imprisoned in the Tower (to keep Peter Wentworth where he could do no harm to the state was the main concern of Queen and Council; as he himself put it: “The causes of my long imprisonment ... a truth plainly delivered”). On this occasion, his second wife (“my chiefest comfort in this life, even the best wife that ever poor gentleman enjoyed”) was permitted to live in the Tower with him (she died there, in July, 1596; Sir Peter died four months later (10-11-1596), after having been imprisoned for fourand-a-half years).
It is clear from several surviving petitions and letters that he could have secured his freedom within a reasonable time, if he had been prepared to acknowledge his fault and give pledge of future silence; instead of repentance, however, in every petition he reiterated the argument of his Pithie Exhortation: to do otherwise, he declared, would be to “give her Highness a most detestable Judas-kiss”. There was a proposal (July, 1596) to release him on the pledges of sureties, but he asked not to be sent home to Lillingstone Lovell, where memories of his wife would be too much for him. 

Sir Peter was buried (with his wife) in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London. An inquisition post mortem (1599), taken at Oxford, was concerned with his manor of Lillingstone Lovell and houses, woods, etc. in the parish and in Lillingstone Dayrell.
Sir Peter’s children (four sons and five daughters) married into puritan families; one son, Thomas, emulated his father in Parliament during the reign of James I. 

M15: WALSINGHAM, Elizabeth                  B: 1533, Horton, Northamptonshire.
                                                                                M: (i)               Geoffrey Gates            
      (ii) c 1555, Sir Peter Wentworth
D: July, 1596, Tower of London (had joined her husband).
Comment: Sister of Francis Walsingham (1532-1590), secretary to Queen
Elizabeth and Ambassador to France, who strove for an alliance between
England and France, attempting to persuade Elizabeth I to marry Anjou.
Elizabeth Walsingham’s son of her first marriage married a step-daughter
of puritan Thomas Wilson, another secretary to Queen Elizabeth.

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